Treaty with the Pembina and Red Lake Chippewa
Half Breed Signatories
In 1850, Major Woods reconnoitred the “North-Western Frontier of the Territory of Minnesota” at the behest of Secretary of War,
actin! as an ad"ance #an for the treaty-#a$in! e%&editions to co#e' ' (e described his #eetin! )ith the *hi&&e)a M+tis Indians at e#binaI .r!ed the# to or!ani/e the#se"es into a band, and a&&oint their chiefs that they #i!ht ha"e so#e order and !o"ern#ent a#on!st the#se"es )ith chiefs ''' that as they )ere, if the 2nited States had any b.siness to transact )ith the#, there )as no &erson to address fro# )ho#
the wishes of the people could be obtained, &c., &c.
Major Woods aso or!ani/ed the French &eo&e he identified as haf-breeds 3n the 4th of .!.st these &eo&e had ret.rned fro# their S&rin! h.nt, and abo.t 00 of the h.nters ca#e to see #e' They had a&&ointed fo.r #en as their s&ea$ers'
I told them that in virtue of their Indian extraction, those living on our side of the line were regarded as being in possession of the Indians' right upon our soil
that they )ere on o.r frontiers treated as co#&onent &arts of the Indian tribes that they either ca#e .nder the Indians6 a)s or re!.ations, or for#ed s.ch for the#se"es' I .r!ed the# to or!ani/e the#se"es into a band .nder a co.nci or chiefs, in"ested )ith a#&e a.thority to act in their na#e, in a #atters )hich #i!ht arise to affect their interests ''' The ne%t day they ret.rned in abo.t the sa#e n.#bers, and &resented #e )ith nine na#es as the co##ittee they had seected for the f.t.re !o"ern#ent of the haf-breed &o&.ation )ithin o.r borders' The Metis &resented the foo)in! na#es as their eected chiefs and *o.nciors 7'' Wi$ie, 7ean ' 9.#ont, a&tiste :ae, ;d)ard (ar#on, 7ose&h <a"erd.re, 7ose&h Noin, ntoine /.re, =obert Monto.r, and a&tiste <afo.rnaise'
S.bse?.enty @o"ernor =a#sey ne!otiated a treaty at e#bina on Se&te#ber 0, 1851' It )as not ratified by *on!ress' The (af reed si!natories )ere as foo)s Aa na#e s&ein!s as in ori!inaB
>d *on!, 1
sess' *onfidentia ;%' 9oc 10 1->' :ine 9eoria 7r' et a,
Documents of American Indian Diplomacy: reaties, agreements and conventions, !""#$!%"%. ol .
Nor#an, 3$a 2ni"ersity of 3$aho#a ress, 1CCC DC8-800' Nichoas *'' :roo#an,
he (hole country was)*ne +obe: he ittle -hell ribes America
' Montana <itte She Tribe of *hi&&e)a Indians of Montana and 9r.#.##on Instit.te, 01 C8-100'
Major Sa#.e Woods,
, ;%ec.ti"e 9oc.#ent No' 51, (o.se of =e&resentati"es, >1st *on!ress, 1st Session'
3f these #en 7ean a&tiste Wi$ie, a&tiste :ae, 7ose&h <a"erd.re, 7ose&h Noin, ntoine /.re, and =obert Monto.r, re&resented the (af reeds at the ne!otiations )ith @o"ernor =a#sey in 1851'