A pplying C I M architecture f or analy sing system integration
CIM implementation often starts from two models, i.e.AS-IS and TO-BE models. The AS-IS system models are built to serve as a snap shot representation of the existingsystem. It is often drawn by re¯ecting the existing systemsconstruction under a CIM architecture. Similarly, TO-BE models are used to describe the design of new systems.Di
erent views are also captured in model description sothat analysis can be carried out. For example, the func-tion model of the system means that it is an abstractrepresentation for the functionality of the system. Itrepresents an aspect that is interesting to the analysis.Although it does not represent the entire system, it pro- vides a very useful means to model a particular perspec-tive of the entire system for analysis. In this sense, it can be called a view of the global system. The existence of di
erent views means that the global system can be ana-lysed from di
erent perspectives. This is similar to theengineering drawings that di
erent views are expressedto describe a component or assembly. Each view has itsown property. However, all of them are useful in describ-ing the same system. Often there are interactions amongdi
erent views and so could not be completely ortho-gonal. They complement each other to make the wholerepresentations, i.e. the system architecture, completeand accurate. By checking the consistencies and coher-ence of those AS-IS models of di
erent views, the incon-sistent problems, or con¯icts, would be found. Theseshould be solved or improved in the design of the newsystem. The graphical modelling languages make the work much easier and clearer than only using descriptive analysis.2.3.
T he characteristics of S tair- L ike C I M system architecture
The Stair-Like Architecture (SLA) contains a threeaxes framework (®gure 1) . Each axis, in essence, containsdi
erent types of models for analysis. The ®rst axisprovides the views for designers performing modellinganalysis. A total of six views can be considered.Depending on the complexity of the systems, designerscan choose the number of views as required. The secondaxis shows Project Life Cycle, i.e. project de®nition,analysis, primary design, detailed design and implemen-tation. Because the job of a working team for CIM imple-mentation would be considered complete when the globalintegrated system starts to operate normally, the focus of CIM architecture is in the area of project formulationand development. The maintenance stage is not consid-ered in this architecture. The third axis is for stepwiserealization. In practice, modelling analysis is usually used for conceptual analysis and primary design. First,models of the existing system (AS-IS) should be built toanalyse the problems that need to be re-engineered.Then, a set of desired future models should be designedto express the properties of the TO-BE system. This is thecontents of primary system design. Then, designersshould map these contents in the models of the newsystem to a detailed technical speci®cation. For realizingall the requirements in this speci®cation, a detaileddesign in three concrete domains, i.e. manufacturing,information, and human and organization, should beproduced for this new system. The outcomes of detaileddesign are speci®c systems speci®cations. They are con-crete, accurate and directly realizable. No more abstractmodelling would be needed for this stage and later.2.4.
T he role of econom ic view
The decision to go ahead and implement CIM oftenrequires detailed justi®cation, e.g. a return on invest-ment. Based on the AS-IS models, cost/bene®t analysiscould be carried out. This work helps to identify thosenon-value added or little value-added processes, andto set priority for those processes which need to be re-engineered. Then, by comparing the same performanceindices of TO-BE models with that of AS-IS models, it facilitates the decision making process. During theprimary system design stage, a number of data wereobtained based on estimation or referred to similar exist-ing data. After the detailed design, actual costs of new facilities and other resources would be obtained.Substituting those parameters into the economic modelto correct the original estimations will help the designerto get more accurate results. It is a necessary iteration.Then, the cost/bene®t di
erence between the AS-IS andTO-BE models indicates the improvement of establishingthe new system.
3. Modelling formalism of economic view
W hy is the A B C method chosen f or this modelling formalism?
The objective of the economic view modelling is toanalyse and help justify the ®nancial aspects of CIM systems. Since CIM systems involve a huge amount of investment, it is necessary to have complete and true®nancial information for a justi®cation purpose.Traditionally, cost accounting has played a role to pro- vide such ®nancial information to show how di
erentprocesses contribute to the pro®tability of a business. Itis very common in the old practice to focus on productcosts that are derived from ®xed and variable costs. Fixedcosts are those which are insensitive to the sales volume,
E conomic view of C I M system architecture