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Development 'O' Level Revision

Development 'O' Level Revision

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Published by: crumpstj on Mar 05, 2009
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07/03/2013

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Development
’O’ Geography ElectiveNotes
What?
Improvement in a country’s economic and social conditions
Standard of Living
in DCs Higherin LDCs Lower
Quality of Life
 
in DCs generally higherin LDCs generally lower
Indicators of Development
Economic Indicator
1.Income per capitaMeasures avg income each workers in a country receives in a yearIndicates wealth of ppl in a countryGDP per capita = (total income in a country in 1 year) divided by (totalpopulation)Increased GDP, Increased HDI rankWhy not true indicator?-an avg figure only-does not take into account the local cost of living-does not reflect informal economic activities-does not reflect social and environmental costs2. Employment StructureShows the proportion of workforce in the 3 main employment sectorsIe. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Industries3. Employment Opportunities 
Health Indicator
1.Life ExpectancyDCs Higher then LDCs – Higher Fertility Rates in DCsWhy?
G
ovt has $$$ to spend on healthcare services
A
ccessibility to Healthcare
P
eople in DCs can afford healthcare2.Infant Mortality RateDCs lower then LDCsWhy?
P
eople can afford food
A
ccessibility of Healthcare
A
dequate Resources to handle disasters
"Success doesn't come to you…you go to it."
 
Marva Collins
Page 1
 
Development
’O’ Geography ElectiveNotes
A
vailability of good sanitation facilities3.Access to water and sanitationMain cause of deaths in most LDCs is due to poor sanitation andcontaminated drinking water
Education Indicator
Literacy Rate% of adults who can read and writeDCs higher than LDCsWhy?
D
Cs have financial resources to meet educational needs
I
n LDCs, Education is a luxury
P
eople In DCs can afford to send their children to sch
Human Development Index (HDI)
Scale of devt used to measure a country’s performance according to..Economic -> Income per capitaHealth -> Life ExpectancyEducation -> Literacy RateMeasurement of HDIHigh0.800 1.000Medium0.500 – 0.799Low0.499 andbelowHDI does not take into account HUMAN RIGHTS and FREEDOM.
Core Periphery Model
CORE : Richer and developed countries/regionsPERIPHERY : Poorer and less developed countries/regions
Core CountryPeriphery Country
Availability of JobsFew Jobs, Services andInvestmentsEconomy Concentrates onSecondary (manufacturing), Tertiary (Services) industriesEconomy Concentrates onPrimary (Farming andextraction of raw materials)Gd InfrastructureLimited InfrastructureConcentration of wealthWeak poor economy
Spread Effect
"Success doesn't come to you…you go to it."
 
Marva Collins
Page 2
 
Development
’O’ Geography ElectiveNotesCore Periphery-Resources drained out to core-Periphery areas in disadvantaged position (deprived)-Devt hindered
Backwash Effect
Core Periphery-Outward Expansion-Wealth and Knowledge transferred to periphery-Form Secondary Core
Factors that Affect Development
Social
HealthLack of health education and medicinesHigh death ratesDiseases such as malaria and aidsDepletes workforceLimits developmentLiteracyEducation expensiveNot all go to schoolLow literacy rateEspecially womenUnskilled workforceExpertise must be bought form DCs
"Success doesn't come to you…you go to it."
 
Marva Collins
Page 3
 
LabourandMaterialsWealth andKnowledge

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