MÔ HÌNH THU
ISERVQUAL 1/ Consumer satisfaction ordissatisfaction is a function of disconfirmation arising fromdiscrepencies between priorexpectations and actual performance(Oliver,1980). This disconfirmationparadigm has been basis of theSERVQUAL model (Parasuraman etal., 1985)2/ SERVQUAL is discrepency model,which basically states that satisfactionoccurs when product or service meetsor exceeds expectation (Crossley andXu, 1996). It assumes that consumersatisfaction is measured as differencebetween expected provision and actualprovision.3/ Establishment of destinationattributes in SERVQUAL are absolutesand satisfaction is measured asdifference between ideal and actual.
1/ Ambiguity of definition of “standard”:
Brown, Churchill and Peter (1993), Teas(1993), Childress and Crompton (1997) allargue that scale should be developed to
directly measure consumers’ perception of
quality of performance against expectationstandard.2/ Lack of validity: Empirical studies haveconsistently confirmed that performance-only measures have greater predictivevalidity than measures includinhexpectations. SERVQUAL fails to exhibitconstruct validity.3/ Conceptual confusion about
interchangeability of terms “service quality”and “customer satisfaction”.
1/ SERVPERF, “performace
model”, better reflects long
-term servicequality attitudes in cross-sectionalstudies (Cronin and Taylor, 1994; Teas,1993).2/ SERVPERF is more construct-validand more efficient than SERRQUAL(Crossley and Xu, 1996).1/ SERVPERF is based onexpectations/performance analysis and willgive full picture of satisfaction in context of price-based strategy but not performacealone (Tribe and Sneith, 1998).2/ SERVPERF uses performance-based scalebut cannot take into account de-rating of absolute especially where price-basedreasons for holiday destinations are at play.IPA 1/ IPA: easy-to-use method of consumerevaluation. IPA entails simultaneous
consideration of consumers’
assessments of importance of salientattributes and level of satisfaction withservice provided and service providersin understandable way. Tourismmanagers can identify areas whereservices and program need to beimproved without using sophisticatedstatistical skills.1/ IPA procedure is not intended to providedetailed and highly specific information(Hudson and Shephard, 1998).2/ IPA has lack of statistical significance
testing ability. “Conventional
must be used to determine significance”
(Duke and Persia, 1996).3/ IPA analyses without segmentation arelikely to result in user displacement of somesegments, giving false impression of validdecisions (Vaske et al., 1996).4/ IPA does not allow for expectations of lowlevels of performance that are contrary tosatisfaction which measures satisfactionbased on performance.