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1
SOCIOLOGIA COMUNIC\u0102RII
Conf.univ dr Constantin Hariuc
CUPRINS
CUPRINS.................................................................................................................................. 1
I. SOCIETATE\u015eI COMUNICARE.......................................................................................... 4
1. Repere istoriografice ale comunic\u0103rii \u00een evolu\ue000ia societ\u0103\ue000ii umane...............................................4

1.1. Epoca semnelor\u015fi semnalelor...................................................................................................................4 1.2. Epoca vorbirii\u015fi a limbajului....................................................................................................................5 1.3. Epoca scrisului...........................................................................................................................................5

1.3.1. Pictogramele conven\ue000ionalizate.........................................................................................................5 1.3.2. Scrierea fonetic\u0103.................................................................................................................................6 1.3.3. Suporturi pentru scris.........................................................................................................................6 1.3.4. Consecin\ue000e ale descoperirii scrisului.................................................................................................6

1.4. Epoca tiparului...........................................................................................................................................6
1.5. Epoca mijloacelor comunic\u0103rii de mas\u0103...................................................................................................7
2. Spa\ue000iile comunic\u0103rii \u00een c\u00e2mpul social...............................................................................................7
II. PREOCUPARI IN SOCIOLOGIE PENTRU STUDIUL COMUNICARII.......................... 9
1. Comunicarea - obiect de studiu al sociologiei..................................................................................9
2. Modele\u015fi teorii sociologice..............................................................................................................10

2.1. Clasificarea modelelor teoretice ale comunic\u0103rii....................................................................................10 2.2. Modele sociologice ale comunic\u0103rii........................................................................................................11 2.3. Teorii sociologice ale comunic\u0103rii interumane.......................................................................................13

3.Orient\u0103ri \u00een definirea conceptului\u015fi \u00een cercetarea comunic\u0103rii...................................................19
3.1. Orient\u0103ri \u00een cercetarea comunic\u0103rii verbale, nonverbale\u015fi organiza\ue000ionale.........................................19
3.2. Orient\u0103ri \u00een studiul comunic\u0103rii de mas\u0103...............................................................................................19
III. FUNDAMENTELE SOCIALE ALE COMUNIC\u0102RII..................................................... 23
1 Factorii sociali care fac posibil\u0103 dob\u00e2ndirea capacit\u0103\ue000ii de a comunica a oamenilor.................23
2. Factorii sociali care influen\ue000eaz\u0103 desf\u0103\u015furarea proceselor comunica\ue000ionale..............................24
2.1. Rolul actorilor comunic\u0103rii.....................................................................................................................24
2.1.1. Rolurile\u015fi statusul social.......................................................................................................................24
2.1.2. Prejudec\u0103\ue000i\u015fi stereotipuri......................................................................................................................25
2.2. Factori care influen\ue000eaz\u0103 codul\u015fi canalul de comunicare.....................................................................25
2.2.1. Alegerea canalului de comunicare.........................................................................................................25
2.2.2. Rolul actorilor.......................................................................................................................................26
2.3. Factorii de context\u015fi de mediu................................................................................................................26

2.3.1. Rolul contextului material\u015fi temporal...................................................................................................26 2.3.2. Rolul contextului social..........................................................................................................................26 2.3.3. Rolul contextului cultural\u015fi ideologic...................................................................................................26

IV. CONEXIUNILE DINTRE SOCIALIZARE\u015eI COMUNICARE....................................... 28

1. Despre socializare.............................................................................................................................28 2. Socializare - comunicare sau comunicare - socializare?...............................................................29 3. Comunicarea de mas\u0103 (mijloacele care o fac posibil\u0103) ca agent al socializ\u0103rii...........................31

V. COMUNICAREA \u00ceN ORGANIZA\ue001II................................................................................ 34
1. Organiza\ue000iile, spa\ue000ii de desf\u0103\u015furare a comunic\u0103rii........................................................................34
1.1. Particularit\u0103\ue000i ale comunic\u0103rii \u00een organiza\ue000ii..........................................................................................34
1.2. Scopurile comunic\u0103rii \u00een organiza\ue000ii.......................................................................................................35
2

1.3. Impactul structurilor organiza\ue000ionale asupra proceselor comunica\ue000ionale (cum influen\ue000eaz\u0103
organiza\ue000iile comunicarea).............................................................................................................................36
1.4. Roluri speciale de comunicare \u00een organiza\ue000ii..........................................................................................37
1.5. Bariere comunica\ue000ionale \u00een organiza\ue000ii...................................................................................................38

2. Impactul tehnologiilor informa\ue000ionale asupra comunic\u0103rii din organiza\ue000ii...............................39
3. Influen\ue000a globaliz\u0103rii asupra proceselor comunica\ue000ionale \u00een organiza\ue000ii....................................40
VI. POSIBILITATEA\u015eI UTILITATEA GESTION\u0102RII COMUNIC\u0102RII \u00ceN ORGANIZA\ue001II
.................................................................................................................................................41

1. Necesitatea gestion\u0103rii comunic\u0103rii \u00een organiza\ue000ii.........................................................................41 2. Probleme ale gestion\u0103rii comunic\u0103rii \u00een organiza\ue000ii......................................................................42 3. Modalit\u0103\ue000i de gestionare a comunic\u0103rii..........................................................................................43 4. Instituirea\u015fi func\ue000ionarea activit\u0103\ue000ilor de rela\ue000ii publice.............................................................44

4.1. Conceptul de rela\ue000ii publice.....................................................................................................................44 4.2. Clasificarea rela\ue000iilor publice..................................................................................................................45 4.3. Tr\u0103s\u0103turile\u015fi func\ue000iile rela\ue000iilor publice..................................................................................................46 4.4. Obiectivele rela\ue000iilor publice....................................................................................................................46 4.5. "\ue001inte"\u015fi forme de desf\u0103\u015furare a ac\ue000iunilor de rela\ue000ii publice..............................................................47

5. Gestionarea crizelor \u00een comunicare \u00een organiza\ue000ii........................................................................48
5.1. Cu privire la conceptul de criz\u0103...............................................................................................................48
5.2. Posibilitatea crizelor \u00een comunicare........................................................................................................49
5.2.1. Comunicarea de criz\u0103.......................................................................................................................49
5.2.2. Crizele \u00een comunicare.......................................................................................................................51
VII. COMUNICAREA PUBLIC\u0102 CET\u0102\ue001ENEASC\u0102............................................................ 53
1. Definirea spa\ue000iului public................................................................................................................53
2. Comunicarea \u00een spa\ue000iul public........................................................................................................54

2.1. Delimitarea comunic\u0103rii publice de alte forme de comunicare..............................................................54 2.2. Obiectivele (efectele pe care le "\ue000inte\u015fte") comunic\u0103rii publice.............................................................54 2.3. Spa\ue000iile comunic\u0103rii publice....................................................................................................................55

3. Modele de comunicare \u00een spa\ue000iul public.........................................................................................55
VIII. COMUNICAREA DE MAS\u0102......................................................................................... 57

1. Unele aspecte privind definirea comunic\u0103rii de mas\u0103...................................................................57 2. Caracteristicile comunic\u0103rii de mas\u0103.............................................................................................58 3.Un model al comunic\u0103rii de mas\u0103....................................................................................................59 4. Elemente ale comunic\u0103rii de mas\u0103..................................................................................................60

4.1. Comunicatorii de mas\u0103............................................................................................................................60 4.2. Organiza\ue000ia mass-media...........................................................................................................................62 4.3. Receptorul comunic\u0103rii de mas\u0103.............................................................................................................63 4.4. Concluzii...................................................................................................................................................63

5. Func\ue000iile comunic\u0103rii de mas\u0103.........................................................................................................64
6. Comunicarea de mas\u0103 \u00een societate..................................................................................................65
IX. GENURI DE FINALIT\u0102\ue001I ALE COMUNIC\u0102RII........................................................... 67
1. Finalit\u0103\ue000i implicite, organizante\u015fi dezorganizante ale comunic\u0103rii............................................67
1.1. Finalit\u0103\ue000i implicite organizante...............................................................................................................67
1.2. Finalit\u0103\ue000i implicite dezorganizante..........................................................................................................68
2. Finalit\u0103\ue000ile comunic\u0103rii \u00een raport cu formele acesteia..................................................................68
3. Alte modalit\u0103\ue000i de exprimare a finalit\u0103\ue000ii comunic\u0103rii.................................................................69
3
4. Aspecte care influen\ue000eaz\u0103 finalitatea comunic\u0103rii.........................................................................69
X. COMUNICAREA CA PROCES DE INFLUEN\ue001\u0102............................................................ 72

1. Comunicarea ca proces de influen\ue000\u0103 prin exercitarea resurselor puterii comunicatorului......72 2. Disponibilitatea pentru influen\ue000\u0103 a receptorului...........................................................................73 3. Influen\ue000a prin intermediul unor persoane cunoscute de subiect, prin norme\u015fi defini\ue000ii

func\ue000ionale \u00een social..............................................................................................................................74 4. Efectele comunic\u0103rii\u015fi procesul de influen\ue000\u0103.................................................................................75 5. Consecin\ue000e negative ale folosirii comunic\u0103rii ca proces de influen\ue000\u0103...........................................75

5.1. Manipularea.............................................................................................................................................75
5.2. Dezinformarea..........................................................................................................................................77
Anexa 1..................................................................................................................................................81
BIBLIOGRAFIE..................................................................................................................... 81
BIBLIOGRAFIE..................................................................................................................... 82

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