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Comparison of Turbulent Jets Issuing From Rectangular Nozzles With and Without Sidewalls

Comparison of Turbulent Jets Issuing From Rectangular Nozzles With and Without Sidewalls

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Comparison of turbulent jets issuing from rectangular nozzleswith and without sidewalls
Ravinesh C. Deo
*,1
, Graham J. Nathan, Jianchun Mi
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Received 3 December 2006; accepted 26 June 2007
Abstract
This paper reports a systematic study of a turbulent jet issuing from a rectangular slot nozzle of high-aspect ratio, AR (
w
/
h
, where
w
and
h
are the long and short sides of the slot, respectively) tested with and without sidewalls. The solid sidewalls were flush with each of the slot’s short sides vertically and extend axially along the streamwise direction of the jet. Hot-wire measurements were conducted at aReynolds number based on slot-width (
h
) and exit centerline velocity of 
Re
h
%
7000 (for AR = 30 and 60) and at 10,000 (for AR = 30) upto 160 h downstream. All jets have a potential core in which the local centerline velocity is approximately constant, followed by a tran-sition region and then a statistically two-dimensional (2-D) region where the centerline mean velocity,
c
$
x
À
1/2
. The potential core of the jet without sidewalls is shorter than that with sidewalls. Near field power spectral analysis reveals that the primary vortex sheddingrate is higher for the jet without sidewalls than the jet with sidewalls. The 2-D region of the jet with sidewalls is found to extend over alonger axial distance than that of the jet without sidewalls. It is also demonstrated that both the decay and spread rates of the jet withinthe 2-D region are lower for the case with sidewalls. Beyond the 2-D region, the jet without sidewalls enters into a far field transitionalphase and then tends to behave statistically like an axisymmetric jet with
c
$
x
À
1
. The centerline turbulence intensity of the jet withsidewalls becomes asymptotic closer to the nozzle exit than the jet without sidewalls. The skewness and flatness factors confirm furtherstatistical differences between the jet with and without sidewalls.
Crown Copyright
Ó
2007 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Plane jet; Planar jet; Rectangular jet; Effect of sidewalls
1. Introduction
The standard nozzle configuration used to produce aplanar jet comprises by a rectangular slot of dimensions
w
·
h
and high aspect ratio, AR (
w
/
h
, where
w
and
h
are nozzle’s long and short sides) with two parallel platesattached as sidewalls to the slot’s short sides. The sidewallsextend axially in the direction of jet propagation. Thisarrangement ensures statistical two-dimensionality becausethe jet is forced to entrain the ambient fluid only in thedirection normal to the nozzle’s long sides. For instance,the early work of Heskestad[1], Bradbury[2]and Gutmark and Wygnanski[3]warrant the use of sidewalls to create astatistically two-dimensional (planar) jet. In contrast, a jetissuing from a similar rectangular slot but configured with-out sidewalls are termed ‘‘rectangular’’ even though the jetis only truly rectangular at the exit plane. For example,Sforza et al.[4], Trentacoste and Sforza[5], Sfeir[6]and Quinn[7]have used the terminology ‘‘rectangular jet’’ toassess the development characteristics of a jet from a rect-angular nozzles without sidewalls. We also adopt this ter-minology for consistency, where applicable in this paper.If the aspect ratio of a rectangular nozzle is sufficientlylarge, this jet, too, behaves like a planar jet up to a certaindownstream distance[8]. This downstream distance,
0894-1777/$ - see front matter Crown Copyright
Ó
2007 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2007.06.009
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 8 8303 5460; fax: +61 8 8303 4367.
E-mail address:
r.deo1@uq.edu.au(R.C. Deo).
1
Present address: Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial InformationSciences, School of Geographical Sciences and Planning, The Universityof Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia.
2
Present address: Department of Energy and Resource Engineering,College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
www.elsevier.com/locate/etfs
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science xxx (2007) xxx–xxx
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Please cite this article in press as: R.C. Deo et al., Comparison of turbulent jets issuing from rectangular nozzles ..., Exp. Therm.Fluid Sci. (2007), doi:10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2007.06.009
 
however, depends on the nozzle aspect ratio[9,10]. It is per-haps for these reasons, or others, that some previous inves-tigations have treated the two configurations as if theycould be used interchangeably. For example, Krothapalliet al.[11], Hussain and Clark[12]and Namar and O ¨tu¨gen[13]have used the term ‘‘planar’’ to describe a jet thatissued from rectangular nozzles of high-aspect ratio butconfigured without sidewalls. This approach is reasonablegiven that the mean velocity decay rates in the self-similarregion of both jets obey the relation
c
$
x
À
1/2
, and thusexhibit statistically two-dimensional behaviour.Namar and O¨tu¨gen[13]have checked the jet’s spanwisevelocity distribution to further confirm statistical two-dimensionality of jets from rectangular nozzles withoutsidewalls. They found that the spanwise distribution of mean velocity and turbulence intensity were fairly uniformin the downstream region. Furthermore, Mi et al.[8]veri-fied experimentally that the relation
c
$
x
À
1/2
also holdstrue in the 2-D region of rectangular jets, but only withina limited axial distance. Nevertheless, given the sensitivityof all shear flows to boundary conditions, some differencescan be expected to result from the presence or absence of sidewalls. This issue remains to be explored at present.A study undertaken by Hitchman et al.[14]to identifydifferences between jets with and without sidewalls is incon-clusive. It showed that the mean centerline velocity of the jet without sidewalls decays slower than for the jet withsidewalls, while its spreading rate is higher than the jet withsidewalls. This clearly contradicts the law of mass conser-vation, since a jet which decays faster must also spread fas-ter, by virtue of a higher rate entrainment of ambient fluid.No other direct comparisons of a jet with and without side-walls currently exist, thus no detailed statistical informa-tion is available. Hence the present investigation seeks toaddress this need.An assessment of the impacts of the presence or absenceof sidewalls is also of relevance to the broader understand-ing of the effects of boundary conditions on turbulent shearflows. It has been well established by George[15]andGeorge and Davidson[16], both analytically and experi-mentally, that differences in boundary conditions propa-gate into the greater flow field. However, the extent of such influences is not so well known. The present investiga-tion aims to provide more detailed statistical comparisonof otherwise identical jets of large aspect ratio with andwithout sidewalls over a flow region of up to 160
h
usinghot-wire measurements.
2. Experimental details
The present nozzle facility, shown schematically inFig. 1, consists of an open circuit wind tunnel of hexagonalcross section built to generate uniform flows. The wind tun-nel, made of wooden modules with polished inner surfaces,was driven by a 14.5 kW aerofoil-type centrifugal fanmounted firmly to the floor so that the entire rig is vibra-tion free. The tunnel employed a wide angle (25
°
) diffuserspanning 2100 mm in length into a settling chamber.Within the diffuser are two screens of 60% porosity at inter-vals of 600 mm that aid in reduction of velocity defect inthe turbulent boundary layer and streamlines the incomingairflow. The settling chamber (of length 1400 mm) con-tained a honeycomb of length 150 mm assembled viadrinking straws aligned horizontally with the main streamflow to reduce swirl. Following the honeycomb are threescreens apart followed by a 150 mm and a further600 mm before the start of the contraction which assistsin effective flow conditioning to reduce turbulence levels.The wind tunnel contraction had an area ratio of 6:1 andemploys a smooth contraction profile based on third orderpolynomial curve to enhance flow uniformity.The test section consisted of a rectangular nozzle with a12 mm radial contraction profile on its long sides (Fig. 1a).This was mounted to the end of the tunnel contraction
Nomenclature
AR nozzle aspect ratio (AR =
w
/
h
)
e
dissipation rate of this energy, assuming isot-ropy with
e
15
t
À
2c
ð
o
u
=
o
Þ
2
u
centerline flatness factor,
u
=
h
u
4
i
/(
h
u
2
i
)
2
h
slot-width of a rectangular nozzle
u
decay rate of mean centerline velocity
 y
jet spreading (widening) rate
Re
Reynolds number
Re
h
o,c
h
/
t
u
centerline skewness factor,
u
=
h
u
3
i
/(
h
u
2
i
)
3/2
u
fluctuation component of mean velocity instreamwise (
x
) direction
u
0
root-mean-square (rms) of the velocity fluctua-tion,
u
0
=
h
u
2
i
1/2
c
local mean velocity on the centerline
o,c
mean exit centerline velocity
w
slot-span of a rectangular nozzle
x
01
virtual origin of the normalized mean centerlinevelocity
x
02
virtual origin of the normalized velocity half-width
x
p
length of the jet’s potential core
 y
0.5
velocity half-width, calculated at the
y
-locationat which
ð
 x
Þ ¼
12
c
ð
 x
Þ
m
kinematic viscosity of the air(
%
1.5
·
10
À
5
m
2
s
À
1
at 20
°
C)
x
,
 y
,
z
streamwise or axial (
x
), lateral (
 y
) and spanwiseor transverse (
z
) coordinate
z
0.5
velocity half-width, calculated at the
z
-locationat which
ð
 x
Þ ¼
12
c
ð
 x
Þ
2
R.C. Deo et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science xxx (2007) xxx–xxx
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Please cite this article in press as: R.C. Deo et al., Comparison of turbulent jets issuing from rectangular nozzles ..., Exp. Therm.Fluid Sci. (2007), doi:10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2007.06.009
 
using tight rubber seals at the edges of contact to avoidleakage. Where present, the sidewalls were mountedflushed to the slot’s short sides and aligned in the
x
 – 
 y
plane(Fig. 1b). The sidewalls extended 2000 mm downstreamand 1800 mm vertically, and were secured tightly by boltsto the laboratory ceiling to avoid vibrations during the tun-nel operation. The slot-width (
h
), aligned with the lateraldirection (
 y
-coordinate) of the nozzle, was fixed at5.60 mm. The slot-span (
w
), aligned along the
z
-direction,was 340 mm for the large aspect ratio, AR
w
/
h
= 60,which was tested with and without sidewalls. The smallernozzle had a 36-mm radial contraction profile and 5 mmslot-height but half the span, so that
w
= 170 mm and thesidewalls were moved inwards so that AR = 30. This wasonly tested without sidewalls so that the effect of slot aspectratio on statistical two-dimensionality of the jet could beassessed. The normalized radius of curvature of 
r
/
h
%
2.14, and 7.20 conforms to our previous finding thata nozzle’s mean exit flow closely approximates ‘‘top-hat’’profile for
r
/
h
> 2.0[8,17].
Fig. 1. Schematic view of the experimental setup: (a) the wind tunnel details and nozzle attachment; (b) the side view showing nozzle parameters and thecase with sidewalls; (c) jet development characteristics; and (d) the experimental apparatus. Note that diagrams drawn are not to scale.
R.C. Deo et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science xxx (2007) xxx–xxx
3
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Please cite this article in press as: R.C. Deo et al., Comparison of turbulent jets issuing from rectangular nozzles ..., Exp. Therm.Fluid Sci. (2007), doi:10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2007.06.009

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