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Pharmacognosy notes for D. pharm # 1

Pharmacognosy notes for D. pharm # 1

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Published by Amol Raut
This is a most useful document in pharmacognosy for D.pharm (according to syllabus) as well as B.pharm and GATE students in India.
Disclaimer: Author does not claim perfect ness. Please download MS Word format of the document to make it correct and further addition of data by you.
This document has been prepared by Mr. A. A. Raut M. pharm (Pharmaceutics)
Comments are welcome.
This is a most useful document in pharmacognosy for D.pharm (according to syllabus) as well as B.pharm and GATE students in India.
Disclaimer: Author does not claim perfect ness. Please download MS Word format of the document to make it correct and further addition of data by you.
This document has been prepared by Mr. A. A. Raut M. pharm (Pharmaceutics)
Comments are welcome.

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Published by: Amol Raut on Mar 06, 2009
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03/25/2014

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B.S.P.M. INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY AMBAJOGAI. Dist – Beed. (M.S.) INDIA. I'st DCP CLASSROOM NOTES – PHARMACOGNOSY # 1.
 
A.A.RAUT
 
1
Laxatives
Plant Name Biological name/ Synonym(s) Other names Part(s) Used Constituents Indications / UseAloe
 Aloe barbadensis,
Mill.
 A. Indica,
Royle.
 A. Littoralis,
Koening
 A. Vera,
Tourn. Ex Linn.(Liliaceae; Agavaceae)Curacao Aloe,Barbados Aloe,Indian Aloe,Jaffarabad Aloe,KummariJuiceglyburide, anthraquinoneglycosides – aloin,acemannan.purgative (causesgriping),gel—topicallyemollient, anti-inflammatory,antimicrobial - usedfor wound healing,sunburn.Rhubarb
Rheum officinale
, Baill.
Rheum Palmatum
, Linn.(Polygonaceae)RhubarbRhizome,rootchrysophan, chrysophanicacid, emodin, aporetin,phæoretin, erythroretin,rheumic acid, andrheotannic acidpurgative, astringent,aperient. used for constipation andatonic dyspepsiaIspaghula
Plantago ovata
, Forsk.(Plantaginaceae)Blond Psyllium,Indian Plantago,Ispagol,Pale Psyllium,SpogelSeed,huskessential oils with alpha-pinene, dipentene, linalool,cineol, methyl salicylate,decyl aldehyde, eugenol,anisaldehyde, bergapten,indole, salicylic andbenzoic acids as major constituents.seed -astringent.seed coat -demulcent.Senna
Cassia senna
, Linn.
Cassia angustifolia
, Vahl.(Leguminosae)Alexandrian Senna,Cassia acutifoliaDelite,Khartoum SennaIndian Senna,Tinnevelly SennaFruit (pod),leavescontains rhein, aloe-emodin, kaempferol,isormamnetin, both freeand as glucosides,together with mycricylalcohol the purgativeprinciples are largelyattributed to anthraquinonederivatives and their glucosides.purgative (free fromastringent action of rhubarb type herbs,but causes gripe),used in compoundsfor treatingbiliousness, distentionof stomach, vomitingand hiccups.
 
B.S.P.M. INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY AMBAJOGAI. Dist – Beed. (M.S.) INDIA. I'st DCP CLASSROOM NOTES – PHARMACOGNOSY # 1.
 
A.A.RAUT
 
2
Cardiotonics
Plant Name Biological name/ Synonym(s) Other names Part(s) Used Constituents Indications / UseDigitalis
Digitalis lanata
, Ehrh.
Digitalis purpurea
, Ehrh.( Scrophulariaceae)Grecian Foxglove Leavescardiac glycosides foundthrought entire plantcardiac stimulantdiureticemeticAdulsa
 Adhatoda zeylanica
, Medic.
 Adhatoda vasica
, Nees.(Acanthaceae )Malabarnut,VasakaAdulsaLeaves alongwith tender stemquinazoline alkaloids -vasicoline, adhatodine,vasicolinone andanisotine . vasicinol,vasicinone,deoxyvasicinone,deoxyvasicinecold. cough,whooping-cough andchronic bronchitis andasthma as sedative-expectorant
Carminatives and GI regulators
Plant Name Biological name/ Synonym(s) Other names Part(s) Used Constituents Indications / UseCoriander 
Coriandrum sativum
, Linn.(Umbelliferae)Dhaanyaka,Kustumburu,Dhaanyeyaka,DhanikaFruitscontains volatile oil,consisting mainly of delta-linalool, alpha-pinene andterpinine. it also containsflavonoids, coumarins,phthalides and phenolicacids (including caffeic andchlorogenic)stimulant, stomachic,carminative,antispasmodic,diuretic; alsohypoglycaemic andanti-inflammatory.oil—bactericidaland larvicidal.Fennel
Foeniculum vulgare,
Mill.(Umbelliferae)Mishreyaa,Mishi,Madhurikaa,Madhuraa,ShatapushpaaFruitsfennel seed contain volatileoils anethole, amongothers fenchone andmethylchavicol),flavonoids, coumarins(including bergapten) andsterolscarminative,stomachic,antispasmodic,emmenagogue,galactagogue, anti-inflammatory,diuretic.Ajowan
Trachyspermum ammi 
, Linn.
Carum copticum
, Benth.(Umbelliferae)Ammi,Lovage,Carum,FruitsLeaf juiceRootthe seeds contain aphenolic glucoside,principal constituents of thefruits—carminative,antispasmodic,anticholerin,
 
B.S.P.M. INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY AMBAJOGAI. Dist – Beed. (M.S.) INDIA. I'st DCP CLASSROOM NOTES – PHARMACOGNOSY # 1.
 
A.A.RAUT
 
3
Ajowan,Yavaaniajowan oil are the phenols,mainly thymol and somecarvacrol.antidiarrhoeal,bechic, stimulant.leaf juice—anthelmintic.root— carminative,diuretic, febrifuge.Cardamom
Elettaria cardamomum
,Maton(Zingiberaceae)Lesser Cardamom ,Elaa,Sukshmailaa.Seedseeds yield an essential oilthe major constituents are,1,8-cineole and alpha-terpinylacetate, withlimonene, alpha-terpineol,sabinene and linalool.seed - carminativeantiemetic, stomachic,orexigenic, anti-gripe,antiasthmatic, bechic,oil - antispasmodic,antiseptic.Ginger 
Zingiber officinale
, Roscoe.(Zingiberaceae)Fresh rhizome—Aardraka,Aadrikaa,Shrngibera.Dried rhizome—Shunthi,Naagara.Rhizomecontains anessential oil containingmonoterpenes, mainlygeranial and neral;sesquiterpenes mainlybeta-sesquiphellandrene,betabisabolene;aromatic curcumene andalphazingiberene;pungent principles,consisting of gingerols,shogaols and relatedphenolic ketonederivatives.antiemetic,antiflatulent,hypocholesterolaemic,anti-inflammatory,antispasmodic,expectorant,circulatory stimulant,diaphoretic, increasesbioavailability of prescription drugs.Black pepper 
Piper nigrum
, Linn.(Piperaceae)Black Pepper ,Maricha,VellajaFruitsthe fruit yielded piperine,piperatine and piperidine;amides, piperyline,piperoleins a and b,and n-isobutyl- cicosa-trans-2-trans-4-dienamide.stimulant, carminative,diuretic, anticholerin,sialagogue, bechic,antiasthmatic. used infevers, dyspepsia,flatulence, indigestion,and as mucous

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