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Motion In a Resisting Medium.pdf

# Motion In a Resisting Medium.pdf

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This essay produces a proportionality constant to be used in equations to predict particle or
object motion in any medium without knowing mass, shape, size, inertia, smoothness of its
surface, density, and movement or pressure of the medium in which the object moves.
This essay produces a proportionality constant to be used in equations to predict particle or
object motion in any medium without knowing mass, shape, size, inertia, smoothness of its
surface, density, and movement or pressure of the medium in which the object moves.

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03/15/2013

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William Greco2404 Greensward N.Warrington, Pa. 18976page 1 of 9W2gre@verizon.netDate: March 14, 2013
Motion In a Resisting MediumExecutive Summary
This essay producesa
proportionality constant
to be used inequations to predict particle orobject motion in any medium without knowing mass, shape,size, inertia, smoothness of itssurface,density, and movement or pressure of the medium in which the object moves.
Main
Calculation of object or particle motion in any medium such as water, air, chemical solutionsor vapors usually requires the coefficient of drag and medium density to beknown. Theequations in this essaydetermine distance travelled by empirically establishing velocity orcalculating velocity if distance travelledover timehasbeen experimentally determined.Resistance in a medium is a force. The resistance that an objectexperiences is determined by
mass,shape,size, inertia, smoothness of its surface, initial velocity, density, and movementor pressure of the medium in which the object moves.
All resistance factors can bemathematically combined into a proportionality constant.Any object or particle moving in aresisting medium will proportionally lose its velocity. At any instant with regard to time anobject will lose its velocity at a rate that is proportional to its velocity. The instantaneous loss of velocity(in differential dot notation)can be described as:
because this is proportional to velocity
dvv v kvdt
If velocity is positive then
v kv
 
, v is positive but decreasing hence dv/dt must be negative.
1.Straight Line Motion
The mass of the object must equal it’s force, hence;
mv kv
 
dividing both sides by massand replacing k/m by k we obtain:
v De
kt
(equation-1)
where:D = initial velocity,k = proportionality constantand t = timeand e = exponential function (also known as theEuler number 2.7182
….ect).The exponential
where
ue
u kt
 
If x = straight line motion of distance travelled in time t, then
dxvdt
so that
x Dekt
Applying the inverse of the calculus chain rule and assigning
dudt
 
the equationcannow be written;
dx De dt
kt
 

William Greco2404 Greensward N.Warrington, Pa. 18976 page 2 of 9W2gre@verizon.netDate: March 14, 2013
Motion In a Resisting Medium1.Straight Line Motion(continued)
Applying
du y e dx e cdx
u u
to
dx De dt
kt
 
x distance travelled becomes:
kt
D D x e c e ck
u
To determine c, measuring x at t = 0 then x = 0 so :
0 and
kt  D D Dc x ek k
 
or
1
kt  D x e
(equation-2)
Example-1:Assume a particle with an initial velocity of 100 ft/sec travelling in straight line motionafter 9.56 seconds of travel has its velocity reduced to 0. Finding (k) by equation-1:
9.56
0 100 2 and 100 0
2 9.56
e k e
By equation-2in 9.56 secondsthe particle would have travelled;
2 9.561001 502
x e feet
Table-1Time (seconds)Velocity (ft/sec)Distance (feet)0.181.879.060.916.5241.731.29.0745.4621.8349.082.50.6749.669.56050
050

William Greco2404 Greensward N.Warrington, Pa. 18976 page 3 of 9W2gre@verizon.netDate: March 14, 2013
Motion In a Resisting Medium1. Straight Line Motion(continued)
Example-2:A car is pushed on level ground toan initialvelocity of 35 ft/sec., the carcoasts204 feetin25seconds,k value by equation-2 andvelocity versus timeby equation-1will be:By equation-2:
0.16906 25351 204 0.16906
0.16906
x e feet
Table-2Time (seconds)Velocity (ft/sec)Distance (feet)515.03118.12106.45168.84152.77190.63201.19199.98250.51204.00300.22205.72
0207.03
2. Downward Motion
Consider an object of mass m falling straight down in a resisting medium such as air,v
apor, liquid or a solid. If we assume the event to occur close to the earth’s surface (0 to100,000 feet above sea level)the force of gravity’s acceleration will average 32.2 ft/sec2
.
The resistance is proportional to the objects velocity. Taking the downward direction aspositive the force of gravity is +32.2m. The magnitude of resistance is kv where k is taken aspositive as it acts to resist as an upward force. Since v (velocity) is downward then theresistance becomes
–kv.The net resisting force is: 32.2m-kv.
Note that any k value above1 or unity will fall below32.2 ft/sec. k values above 1 have a considerable amount of drag.
Using dot notation for the differential of acceleration;
32.2
mv m kv
Dividing both sides by m and replacing k/m by another constant k we have:
32.2
v kv
The right side of the equation is dependent on v so:
132.2
dt dv kv
(equation-a)