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Perancangan Tangki Penyimpan dan Menara Distilasi

Perancangan Tangki Penyimpan dan Menara Distilasi

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Published by Nanda Dianto A
Perancangan Tangki Penyimpan dan Menara Distilasi
Sumber Brownell-Young
Coulson R
Perancangan Tangki Penyimpan dan Menara Distilasi
Sumber Brownell-Young
Coulson R

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Published by: Nanda Dianto A on Mar 15, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/03/2013

 
Process Equipment Design: 3 CR
Codes such as: ASTM=American Society of Mechanical Engineers; API=AmericanPetroleum Institute
Brownell, L.E., and Young, E. H., 1959, “Process EquipmentDesign: Vessel Design”, Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi
1.
 
Vessel/ShellFactors influencing the design of vesselsa.
 
Selection of the type of VesselType of vessel that is suited for particular serviceb.
 
The most common types of vessels based on their geometryare:i.
 
Open tanksii.
 
Flat bottomed, vertical cylinder tanksiii.
 
Vertical cylindrical and horizontal vessels with formedheadsiv.
 
Spherical or modified spherical vessels
Vessels in each these classifications are widely used asstorage vessels and as processing vessels for fluids
c.
 
Primary factors that must be considered as followsi.
 
Function and location of vesselii.
 
The nature of the fluidiii.
 
Operating pressure and temperatureiv.
 
Volume of storage or capacity for processing
Coulson, J.M., and Richardson, J.F., 1983, Chemical EngineeringVolume 6 (SI Units) Design, Pergamon Press, Oxfordp. 622, Chapter 13; Mechanical Design of Process Equipment
The basic data needed by the specialist designer will be
:a.
 
Vessel functionb.
 
Process materials and servicesc.
 
Operating and design temperature and pressured.
 
Materials of construction
e.
 
Vessel dimensions and orientationf.
 
Type of vessel heads to be used
g.
 
Openings and connections required
 
h.
 
Specification of heating and cooling jackets or coilsi.
 
Type of agitator j.
 
Specification of internal fittingsClassification of 
pressure vessels
are divided into two classes: thin walled vessels with athickness ratio of less than 1:10; and thick walled above this ratio
General design considerations: pressure vessels
a.
 
Design pressureP
design
= (1.5-1.1) P
operating
;If hydrostatic pressure in the base of the column should beadded to the operating pressure, if significantb.
 
Design temperatureThe strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature,so the maximum allowable design will depend on the materialtemperaturec.
 
MaterialsCarbon and alloy steels for pressure vessel construction arecovered by the following British Standards: BS 1501, plate etc.d.
 
Design stress (nominal design strength)For design purposes it is necessary to decide a value of themaximum allowable stress that can be accepted in thematerial construction. For materials not subject to hightemperature the design stress is based on the yield stress orthe tensile strength of the material at design temperaturee.
 
Welded joint efficiency, and construction categoriesThe strength of a welded joint will depend on the type of  joints and the quality of the welding. The soundness of weldsis checked by visual inspection and non-destructive testing(radiography)f.
 
Corrosion allowanceMost design codes and standards specify a minimumallowance of 1.0 mm. For carbon and low-alloy where severecorrosion is not expected, a minimum allowance of 2.0 mmshould be used; where more severe conditions are anticipatedthis should be increased to 4.0 mm.g.
 
Design loadsA structure must be designed to resist gross plasticdeformation and collapse under all conditions of loading.Major loads1.
 
Design pressure including any significant statichead of liquid;2.
 
Maximum weight of the vessel and contents, underoperating conditions;
 
3.
 
Maximum weight of the vessel and contents underhydraulic test conditions4.
 
Wind loads5.
 
Earthquake loads6.
 
Load supported by, or reacting on, the vesselSubsidiary loads1.
 
Local stresses caused by supports, internalstructures and connecting pipes;2.
 
Shock loads caused by water hammer, or bysurging of the vessel contents;3.
 
Bending moments caused by eccentricity of centreof the working pressure relative to the neutral axisof the vessel;4.
 
Stresses due to temperature differences anddifferences in the coefficient expansion of materials;5.
 
Loads caused by fluctuations in temperature andpressureh.
 
Minimum practical wall thickness(Including the corrosion allowance, 2 mm)Vessel diameter (m) Minimum thickness (mm)1 51 to 2 72 to 2.5 92.5 to 3.0 103.0 to 3.5 12
The design of thin-walled vessels under internal  pressure
a.
 
Cylinder Shells
( )
; BS 55002
i ii
P D Jf P
=
, , dan
i i
 f P J D
dengan are designstress, internal pressure, joint factor and internal diameter,respectively.b.
 
Spherical shells
( )
; BS 55004 1.2
i ii
P D Jf P
=
 c.
 
Heads and closuresi.
 
Flat plates and formed heads

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