HISTORY OF C++
C++, as the name implies, is essentially based on the C programming lan-guage. Therefore, it seems prudent to begin with a brief history of C. TheC programming language was devised in the early 1970s at Bell Labora-tories by Dennis Ritchie. It was designed as a system implementation lan-guage for the Unix operating system. The history of C and Unix areclosely intertwined. For this reason a lot of Unix programming is donewith C. To some extent, C was originally based on the typeless languageBCPL, however it grew well beyond that.The C++ programming language was invented by Bjarne Stroustroup.Work on what would become C++ began in 1979. The initial version wascalled “C with Classes.” That name did not work out well, and wasreplaced with C++. The first version of C++ was used internally in AT&Tin August 1983. The first commercial implementation was released in1985. The C++ language standards are now handled by the AmericanNational Standards Institute (ANSI), and the International StandardsOrganization (ISO). This is why you often hear pure C++ referred to asANSI Standard C++, or ISO Standard C++.
Pure C++ is mentioned because there are a lot of extensionsthat are specific to a particular compiler or operating system. A few of these are covered in this book, but are identified asbeing nonstandard.
WHAT IS C++?
You can see that the C programming language was developed first, C++was developed later. You might be asking yourself what, exactly, is C++and how does it relate to C? The answer is that C++ is essentially C takento the next level. The most obvious difference between the two is thatC++ supports object orientation (more on that in Chapters 10, 11, and 12).However, C++ sports many other improvements over C. For example,C++ handles strings better than C, and has a more robust exception han-dling. (Exception handling refers to a program’s ability to handle unex-pected errors. What if the user inputs a zero then tries to divide by that
C++ Programming Fundamentals