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My Best Senior

My Best Senior

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Published by hundee

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: hundee on Mar 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/16/2009

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CHAPTER ONE
1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the study
Even though the history of education in Ethiopia dates as farback as the introduction of Christianity in Ethiopia duringEzana in 3300A.D, the first attempt to open school of Europeanstyle was for the first time made by the Jesuit in the 16
th
century. This attempt was not continued due to theoutstanding of Jesuits following the removal of emperorSusinyos. Toward the end of the 19
th
century, several factorsaccentuated the need for modern education. Theestablishment of strong central government and permanenturban seats of modern development of modern sector economylike manufacturing activities, establishment of foreignembassies of Adwa, are, among others, the main factors thathaveContributed for the development of modern education inEthiopia. Modern education has started at the beginning of the20
th
century and officially commenced in 1908 with opening of Menelik 1
st 
School in Addis Ababa. (Ministry of education,2004),Ethiopian education in general has two systems of main sub-sectors that are institutionally separate:-1. formal educational sub-sector, which consist of academicand technical and training at primary, secondary and tertiarylevel ; and2. Non-formal education which includes:-Technical vocational skills trained and extensive contact foryouth and adults. Between 1962 and 1994 the generaleducation in Ethiopia divided into three these are:--primary school (grade1-6)-junior secondary school (grade7-8)-senior secondary school (grade9-12)Education reforms in 1994 revised the structure so that it nowcons in 1994 revised the structure and modify the previoussystem of education so after 1994 consists of primaryeducation (grade1-8) which also consists of first cycle (grade1-4) which aims at achieving the functional literacy and thesecond cycles (grade5-8) prepares students for furthereducation, general secondary education and training, andsecond cycles of the secondary education (grade11-12), thatprepares student for higher education.
1
 
1.1.1. Educational policies and strategies in Ethiopia.
Attempts to formulate the education sector policies duringimperial regime were limited to a proclamation (1943 and1948) which deals with the organization and duties andresponsibilities of the ministry of education and its duties. Itwas made to adapt the Ethiopian education to the needs of thecountry and expands the coverage of the activitiesin the provision of special training for the sector and educationsystem. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia, 2004
),
1.1.2
.
Performance of education sector in the Ethiopia
.
Education directly improves the productivity and ratesof return and earnings of people.In addition to this,education has or wide range of indirect effects, whichinstigate positive changes in peoples attitudes towardwork and society. It make easier to learn new skillsthroughout their lives and hence facilitate theirparticipation in modern economies and societies. It alsoimportant factor which affects the health and lifeexpectancy of individuals, because if equips them withthe knowledge and the means to present control anddirect disease. (Ministry of Education of Ethiopia,2004)
Primary school enrollment increased from about 957,300 in 1974/75 tonearly 2,450,000 in 1985/86. There were still variations among regions in thenumber of students enrolled and a disparity in the enrollment of boys andgirls. Nevertheless, while the enrollment of boys more than doubled, that of girls more than tripled. Urban areas had a higher ratio of children enrolled inschools, as well as a higher proportion of female students, compared withrural areas.The number of junior secondary schools almost doubled, with fourfoldincreases in Gojam, Kefa, and Welega. Most junior secondary schools wereattached to primary schools.
2
 
The number of senior secondary schools almost doubled as well, with fourfoldincreases in Arsi, Bale, Gojam, Gonder, and Welo. The prerevolutionarydistribution of schools had shown a concentration in the urban areas of a fewadministrative regions. In 1974/75 about 55 percent of senior secondaryschools were in Eritrea and Shewa, including Addis Ababa. In 1985/86 thefigure was down to 40 percent. Although there were significantly fewer girlsenrolled at the secondary level, the proportion of females in the school systemat all levels and in all regions increased from about 32 percent in 1974/75 to39 percent in 1985/86
.
1.1.3. Education in Oromia Regional states
Regarding to Oromia regional states of Ethiopia, it is one of the regions in the country where both formal and non-formaleducation do not reach the majority of the population. Theschool in the regions are unevenly distributed and mostlyphysically and materially and deteriorated. This deteriorationis due to cultural and other constraints there is ahigher dropout rate at the lower lower level which mostlyaffects girls’ participation in the education of the region.(Finance and Development Bureau of Oromia, 2005), Educationsystem of Oromia regional state normally consists of formaland non-formal education.Formal education comprises of primary, secondary educations,technical and vocational educations. The data that recorded in2005 in Oromia regional bureau of educations shows that, twoteachers training institute (TTI), four teachers training college(TTC), 38 technical and vocational education training (TTET), of which 36 and 2 are government and non-government centersrespectively. Moreover, there are 164 secondary schools, and4893 primary schools in the Oromia regions.(RegionalEducation Bureau of Oromia,2005), Education in Aweday town
1.1.3.1 Performance of education in oromia regionalstate
As can be seen from the trend of growth of number of educational facilities stated in the previous section,tremendous efforts were made to improve access to educationfacilities over the past seven years (1987-1995 E.C). Accordingto the available data in this regard the number of primaryschools has increased from 4069 to 4893. Likewise, thenumber of secondary schools has also increased from 108 to
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