Sir. AJAY YASHPAL(98187 02707) Education Point Sir. Anoop Behl
The branch of science which deal with energy change in physical and chemicalreactions.
A specified portion of universe which is under observation is called system. It is of two types:(i)
Heterogeneous system: If all the parts of the system have different physical and chemical properties.(ii)
Homogenous system: If all the parts of the system have same physical and chemical properties.
The rest part of the universe which is not under investigation.Type of system:
A system that can not exchange energy or matter from surrounding.
2. Close system:
It can exchange energy only with surroundings.
3. Open system:
It can exchange both energy as well as matter with surroundings.
The measurable properties required to describe the state of the system example; temperature, pressure, volume.
A state function is a property of the system whose value depends only upon the state of thesystem and is independent of the path by which the path is reached.
Mode of transference of energy:
In energetic two main mode of transference of energy are:
Energy is always exchanged with surrounding except in case of isolated system whenthere is change in temperature between system and surroundings.
It is exchange of energy of system with surrounding when there is change in pressure.Internal energy of system; it is the sum of all different kind of energy associated with molecule such as energyof translation ,rotation ,and vibration, electric energy ,energy due to molecular interaction.
Internal energy change:
it is difference between energy of reactant and product.It may also be defined as amount of heat evolved or absorbed in chemical reaction at constant temperature andat constant volume. It is denoted by
it may be defined as amount of heat evolved or absorbed in chemical reaction at constanttemperature and pressure. Or, the sum of the internal energy and the product of its pressure and volume.
It is measure of heat change taking place during a process at constant pressure.H=E+PV and
∆ H=∆ E+P∆ V
Enthalpy of reaction:
The change during a chemical reaction when number of moles of reactants and product being same as indicated by the balanced chemical equation.
Enthalpy of formation:
Enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements.
Standard Enthalpy of formation:
Enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from itselements, all the substance being in their standard state (1 atm. and 298K) Note: By convention the heat of formation of every element in its standard state is arbitrary assumed to be zero.
0(for the reaction)
Enthalpy of combustion:
The amount of heat change when one mole of a substance is completely burnt onexcess of oxygen or air is called heat of combustion.
The amount of heat produced when one gram of a substance is completely burnt. The amountof heat is taken in calories or joules.
Enthalpy of solution:
The heat change when one mole of substance is dissolved in a specified quality of solvent at a given temperature is called heat of solution.
Enthalpy of neutralization:
The heat change when one gram equivalent of acid is completely neutralized by a base or vice-versa in dilute is called heat of neutralization. Note: Heat of neutralization of all strong acids by strong bases is always -57.1KJ irrespective of the nature of acids or the base.
Enthalpy of fusion:
The amount of heat change when one mole of a solid substance is converted into its liquidstate at its melting point.
Enthalpy of vapourisation:
The amount of heat change when one mole of a liquid substance is converted intoits gaseous state at its boiling point.