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Facilitation of Extinction of Conditioned Fear by D-Cycloserine - Implications for Psychotherapy

Facilitation of Extinction of Conditioned Fear by D-Cycloserine - Implications for Psychotherapy

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Facilitation of Extinction of Conditioned Fear byD-Cycloserine
Implications for Psychotherapy
Michael Davis,
1,2,3,4
Karyn M. Myers,
2,3,4
Kerry J. Ressler,
2,3,4
Barbara O. Rothbaum
2,3
 Departments of 
1
 Psychology and
2
 Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences,
3
Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, and
 4
Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University
ABSTRACT—
Excessive fear and anxiety are characteristicofdisorderssuchaspost-traumaticstressdisorder(PTSD)and phobias and are believed to reflect abnormalities inneural systems governing the development and reductionof conditioned fear. Conditioned fear can be suppressed through a process known as extinction, in which repeated exposuretoafearedstimulusintheabsence ofanaversiveevent leads to a gradual reduction in the fear response tothat stimulus. Like conditioned fear learning, extinctionis dependent on a particular protein (the N-methyl-D-aspartate or NMDA receptor) in a part of the brain called the amygdala. Blockade of this receptor blocks extinctionand improving the activity of this receptor with a drug called D-cycloserine speeds up extinction in rats. Becauseexposure-based psychotherapy for fear disorders in hu-mans resembles extinction in several respects, we investi- gated whether D-cycloserine might facilitate the loss of  fear in human patients. Consistent with findings from theanimal laboratory, patients receiving D-cycloserine bene- fited more from exposure-based psychotherapy than did  placebo-treatedcontrols.Althoughverypreliminary,thesedata provide initial support for the use of cognitive en-hancers in psychotherapy and demonstrate that preclini-cal studies in rodents can have direct benefits to humans.
KEYWORDS—
amygdala; exposure therapy; fear; NMDA; post-traumatic stress disorder; phobias; extinction
 I can’t get the memories out of my mind! The images come  flooding back in vivid detail, triggered by the most inconsequen-tial things, like a door slamming or the smell of stir-fried pork. Last night, I went to bed, was having a good sleep for a change.Thenintheearlymorningastorm frontpassedthroughandthere wasaboltofcrackling thunder.Iawokeinstantly,frozen infear.amrightback inVietnam, inthemiddleofthemonsoonseason atmy guard post. I am sure I’ll get hit in the next volley and con- vinced I will die. My hands are freezing, yet sweat pours from myentire body. I feel each hair on the back of my neck standing onend. I can’t catch my breath and my heart is pounding. I smell adampsulfursmell.SuddenlyIseewhat’sleftofmybuddyTroy,hisheadonabambooplatter,sentbacktoourcampbytheVietCong. Propagandamessagesarestuffed between his clenched teeth.Thenextboltoflightningandclapofthundermakesmejumpsomuchthat I fall to the floor
.
1
Perhaps there are no more vivid memories than those storedin the brains of soldiers who have experienced combat situa-tions. Witness the above account told by a 60-year-old Vietnamveteran who cannot hear a clapof thunder,see an Asian woman,or touch a bamboo placemat without re-experiencing the sightof his decapitated friend. Even though this traumatic eventoccurred in a faraway place and long ago, the memoryis still vivid in every detail and continues to produce the samestate of hyperarousal and fear as he experienced on that fatefulday.Once called combat fatigue, war neurosis, or shell shock, it isnowclearthatpost-traumaticstressdisorder(PTSD)resultsfromintensetraumaandproducesvividmemoriesthatlastalifetime.
Address correspondence to Michael Davis, Yerkes National PrimateResearch Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta,GA 30329; e-mail: mdavis4@emory.edu.
1
Paraphrased from a war veteran’s conversations with R.L. Gelman, Depart-ment of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine (personal communica-tion).
CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
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Volume 14—Number 4Copyright
r
2005 American Psychological Society
 
The memories can be triggered by stimuli associated with theoriginal traumatic event (flashbacks), and in some individualsthey are so intrusive that normal functioning is no longer pos-sible.Particularlyinlightoftheincreased incidenceofPTSDinthe United States following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 (Marshall and Galea, 2004), there has been increasinginterest in the question of how to quiet these intense fears andhelp sufferers lead more normal lives.ItisnowgenerallybelievedthatPTSDisdueatleastinparttoa learning process in which formerly neutral stimuli (e.g., abambooplacemat)arepaired withextremelyaversiveones(e.g.,the sight of a head without a body). This process is a classicexample of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a form of learning thathasbeenstudiedextensivelybypsychologistsandaboutwhichagreat deal of basic information has been gained. Patients suf-feringfrom PTSDseemnot tobenefit from thepresenceofsafetysignals (such as their spouses) that help those without the dis-order cope with painful fear memories (Herman, 1992). An ex-amplemightbeafemalerapevictimwho,beforetherape,hadanintimate, close relationship with her husband (a safety signal)but now feels unsafe with him and with other men as well.Likewise, despite the passage of many years and being in anenvironment very different from Vietnam, the war veteran’s fear persists. Basic studies on the development and reduction of fear and anxiety are proving to have direct clinical relevance byincreasing our understanding of these processes and the meansby which they may become dysfunctional.
LEARNING TO BE AFRAID
Converging evidence from many different laboratories indicatesthat a brain structure called the amygdala, located in the tem-poral lobe, is critically involved in both the formation and ex-pression of aversive memories (Aggleton, 2000). The amygdalareceives highly processed information from all sensory modali-ties and it projects widely to parts of the brain involved in theautonomicandsomaticaspectsoffearandanxiety(cf.DavisandWhalen, 2001; Fendt and Fanselow, 1999; LeDoux, 1994).When the amygdala is removed or inactivated in animals, theacquisitionandexpressionofconditionedfearisblocked.Whenpeoplelookatpicturesofscaryfaces,remembertraumaticevents,or perceive cues previously paired with shocks, there is an in-crease in blood flow to the amygdala. Fear learning appears toinvolvemovementofcalciumintoamygdalaneuronsfollowedbyacomplexpatternofintracellularchangesthatpresumablyleadstolong-term structural changes, allowing conditioned fear to be-come more or less permanent.ThemajorprobleminPTSDandcertain othertypesofanxietydisordersisaninabilitytosuppressorinhibitterriblememories.Hence, an important area of inquiry concerns the way in whichunwanted memories are inhibited and the reasons they fail tobeinhibited following traumatic fear conditioning.
LEARNING TO REDUCE FEAR
Inhibition of acquired fear is studied in the laboratory using aprocedurally simple paradigm in which a rat or a humanis conditioned to fear some neutral stimulus, such as a lightor tone, by pairing it with some aversive stimulus, such as amild shock. Following this, the fear stimulus is presented re-peatedlyintheabsenceoftheshock.Thisprocedureisknownas
extinction training
and results in a gradual decline and ultimatedisappearance of the fear response as the subject learns thatthe stimulus is no longer predictive of the aversive event(extinction).Behavioral observations indicate that extinction is a form of learning in its own right, rather than an ‘‘unlearning’’ or forget-ting of previous learning (cf. Myers & Davis, 2002). Thus, after extinctiontraining,fearmemoriesreturnovertime(spontaneousrecovery), when the fear stimulus is presented in a placedifferent from the place where extinction training took place(renewal), or when there has been an intervening stress (rein-statement).There-emergenceofthefearresponseinthesecasesindicates that fear has not been lost through extinction, butrather has been actively suppressed through an additionallearning process. Thus, extinction is considered to be a formof acquired inhibition that counteracts or suppresses fearesponses that are no longer adaptive.Much less is known about the neural underpinnings of ex-tinction than about the underpinnings of fear learning. Signifi-cantly, however, it has been established that extinction shareswith acquisition a dependence on the N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA) receptor within the amygdala. The NMDA receptor, aprotein located at certain synapses that are innervated by theneurotransmitterglutamate,hasbeenimplicatedinlearningandmemory in a variety ofsituations. Falls, Miserendino, and Davis(1992) reported that intra-amygdala infusions of a compoundthat interferes with activity of this receptor shortly beforeextinction training blocked extinction, with the degree of theblockade depending on the dose that was given. Importantly,extinction was measured the next day at a time when the NMDAblocker was no longer in the brain. Other experiments indicatedthat this impairment could not be attributed to an effect onNMDA receptors outside the amygdala, to damage to or de-struction of the amygdala, or to an impairment of sensorytransmission during extinction training. Additional studies us-ing systemic administration of other compounds that blockNMDA receptors have confirmed the extinction-blockingeffect. Blocking NMDA receptors after extinction training alsoblocks extinction, suggesting that NMDA receptors are impor-tantfortheconsolidationofextinction(Santini,Muller,&Quirk,2001).In light of these findings, the question arose as to whether itwould be possible to enhance extinction by enhancing thefunctioning of the NMDA receptor. It is known that a compoundcalled D-cycloserine binds to the NMDA receptor and makes it
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M. Davis et al.
 
work better. Thus, we predicted that giving D-cycloserine prior to extinction training would enhance extinction. In a series of experiments conducted very similarly to those of Falls et al.(1992), our laboratory (Walker, Ressler, Lu, & Davis, 2002)administered D-cycloserine either systemically or directly intothe amygdala prior to extinction training and then tested re-tention of extinction the next day without administering anymore of the drug. D-cycloserine dose-dependently enhancedextinction in rats exposed to lights in the absence of shock butnotincontrolratsthatdidnotreceiveextinctiontraining(Fig.1).This indicated that the drug’s facilitatory effect was specific toextinction and did not result from a general dampening of fear expression.Ledgerwood, Richardson, and Cranney (2003) found thatD-cycloserine given either systemically or directly into theamygdala also facilitated extinction of conditioned freezing.Mostinterestingly,D-cycloserinecouldstillfacilitateextinctionwhengivenuptoabout3hoursafterextinctiontraining,afindingconsistent with the idea that D-cycloserine facilitates consoli-dation of extinction. More recently, the same researchers foundthat D-cycloserine reduced the ability of stress to disruptextinction. Thus, control rats given shocks as a stressor after extinction training showed the typical return of conditionedfear (reinstatement), whereas experimental rats previouslytreated with D-cycloserine continued to express extinction(i.e., showed much less reinstated fear; Ledgerwood, Richard-son, & Cranney, 2004).Surprisingly, both our lab and the Richardson lab have foundthat D-cycloserine facilitates extinction only, not fear condi-tioningitself,althoughitisnotclearwhythisisso.Asmentionedearlier, D-cycloserine binds to the NMDA receptor to make itwork better. D-cycloserine works similarly to D-serine, achemicalinthebrainthat,alongwithglycine,isbelievedtobindtothesamesiteontheNMDAreceptor.Hence,itispossiblethatNMDA receptors involved in fear conditioning are already sat-urated with D-serine or glycine, such that adding D-cycloserinecannot have any further effect; perhaps NMDA receptors in-volvedinextinctionarenotsaturated,suchthattheiractivitycanbe improved by giving D-cycloserine.
FROM LABORATORY TO CLINIC
Amygdalaactivationuponpresentationofremindersoftraumaisexaggerated greatly in people suffering from anxiety disorderssuch as PTSD, relative to equally traumatized individuals whodidnotgoontodevelopPTSD(cf.Rauch,Shin,&Wright,2003).For this reason it has been hypothesized that inappropriate andexcessive fear in humans results from abnormal fear learningprocesses and may reflect irregularities in the circuitry of theamygdala or related structures that play a role in either fear learning or fear inhibition (Quirk & Gehlert, 2003). Therapeu-tically,treatmentsforPTSDandotheranxietydisorderstypicallyinvolve a process similar to extinction. Techniques such assystematic desensitization, for example, involve exposure tofeared stimuli in the absence of any aversive event or even thepossibility that an aversive event might occur, with the resultthat the reflexive fear response of a person undergoing suchtreatment gradually subsides. Because this process is so similar to extinction, an understanding of the mechanisms of extinctionshould inform and refine the procedures of systematic desensi-tization.An example of this translational approach from our own re-search is a preliminary study in which we evaluated the clinicalutility of orally administeredD-cycloserine in combination withexposure therapy for acrophobics (people suffering from an in-ordinate fear of heights). We could test this possibility imme-diatelybecausethedrugisknowntobesafetouseinhumans:D-cycloserine at high doses has antibacterial effects and has beenused to treat tuberculosis with very few side effects. The expo-sure therapy in these studies assumed a unique form: a virtual-reality situation developed by Rothbaum and colleagues inwhich patients rode in a virtual glass elevator to progressivelyhigher floors (see Fig. 2; Ressler et al., 2004). This situation isvery frightening to patients just entering treatment but becomesconsiderably more tolerable with increasing exposure to thevirtual environment, typically over six to eight sessions.
20406080100120140160
   F  e  a  r  -  p  o   t  e  n   t   i  a   t  e   d  s   t  a  r   t   l  e
Treatment During Extinction TrainingPost-extinction testPre-extinction testSalineDCS3.25 mgDCS15.0 mgDCS30.0 mg
BA
3 daysacclimation(24 hr) (24 hr)BaselineStartleFearconditioningPre-Extinctiontest(24 hr)Post-Extinctiontest(24 hr) (24 hr)Cueexposure+ drug
--Extinction--
Fig. 1.
Timeline for the experiment to test effects of D-cycloserine onextinction of conditioned fear in rats (A). Percent fear-potentiated startlemeasured 24 hours before (pre-extinction test) and 24 hours after (post-extinction test) extinction training (B). Saline (placebo) or D-cycloserine(DCS) in three different doses (3.25 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, or 30 mg/kg) wasadministered 30 minutes prior to a single session of extinction training.Fear-potentiatedstartle was measured 24 hours later in the absence of thedrug. From Walker et al. (2002) with permission from the Society forNeuroscience.
216
Volume 14—Number 4
Facilitation of Extinction by D-Cycloserine

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