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Qs for T3 & Lecture 3

Qs for T3 & Lecture 3

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COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES-VNU
POST-GRADUATE STUDIES
RESEARCH METHODS IN APPLIED LINGUISTICS
Questions for Tutorial 3
1.What is ethnographic research? State the difference between anethnographic research and a psychometric research and give examplefrom applied linguistic studies.2.Find a report of an ethnographic research in applied linguistics and giveyour comments on the following points:
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 The research question
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 The contexts the research was conducted
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What is group or case under study?
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What conceptual and theoretical frame works inform the study?
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What field techniques were used? For how much time? In what contexts?What were the roles of the ethnographer?3. Find a report of a ethnographic research in applied linguistics and giveyour comments on:
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What field techniques were used? For how much time? In what contexts?What were the roles of the ethnographer?
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What analysis strategies were developed and used? what levels and typesof context were attended to in interpretation?
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What recurrent patterns are described?
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What cultural interpretation is provided?- What are the stated implications for teaching?
Lecture 3Lecture 3
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCHETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCHCompulsory ReadingsCompulsory Readings
Nunan. D. 1992.Nunan. D. 1992.
Research Methods in Language LearningResearch Methods in Language Learning
. Cambridge: CUP (P.. Cambridge: CUP (P. 52 - 73)52 - 73)
 
Coffey, A. & Atkinson, P. 1996,Coffey, A. & Atkinson, P. 1996,
Making Sense of Qualitative Data,Making Sense of Qualitative Data, Complementary Research StrategiesComplementary Research Strategies
, CA: SAGE Publications., CA: SAGE Publications.Newman, P. & Ratliff, M. 2001,Newman, P. & Ratliff, M. 2001,
Linguistics Fieldwork Linguistics Fieldwork 
, Cambridge: CUP, Cambridge: CUPWajnryb, R. 1992,Wajnryb, R. 1992,
Classroom Observation TasksClassroom Observation Tasks
, Cambridge: CUP., Cambridge: CUP.
 
What is ethnography?What is ethnography?
Ethnography, which seeks to understand and represent theEthnography, which seeks to understand and represent the points of view of the members of a particular culture, is a primarypoints of view of the members of a particular culture, is a primary approach to data collection and analysis in anthropology andapproach to data collection and analysis in anthropology and sociology.sociology.
Ethnographic researchEthnographic research
Ethnographic research is one form of qualitative researchEthnographic research is one form of qualitative research which concerns with studying human behavior within thewhich concerns with studying human behavior within the context in which that behavior would occur naturally and incontext in which that behavior would occur naturally and in which the role of the researcher would not affect the normalwhich the role of the researcher would not affect the normal behavior of the subjects.behavior of the subjects.
Ethnography research is a type of research which required:Ethnography research is a type of research which required:- much training, skill and dedication- much training, skill and dedication- a great store on the collection and interpretation of data- a great store on the collection and interpretation of data- question and hypothesis emerge during the course of investigation,- question and hypothesis emerge during the course of investigation, rather than beforehandrather than beforehand
What is ethnography researchWhat is ethnography research
Ethnographic research uses naturalistic observation to recordEthnographic research uses naturalistic observation to record systematically the behaviour of the subject under study in its ownsystematically the behaviour of the subject under study in its own settings. Its root is in ethnography: anthropology and sociology andsettings. Its root is in ethnography: anthropology and sociology and the focus is on cultural aspects of behaviourthe focus is on cultural aspects of behaviour
Characteristics of ethnographic researchCharacteristics of ethnographic research
 
Contextual: carried out in the context in which the subjectsContextual: carried out in the context in which the subjects normally live and worknormally live and work
Unobtrusive: the researcher does not try to control or handle theUnobtrusive: the researcher does not try to control or handle the phenomenonphenomenon
Longitudinal: the research takes a relative long timeLongitudinal: the research takes a relative long time
Collaborative: the research involves the interaction betweenCollaborative: the research involves the interaction between participantsparticipants
Interpretative: interpretative analysis of dataInterpretative: interpretative analysis of data
Organic: ethnographers may obtain data which do not supportOrganic: ethnographers may obtain data which do not support their original questions or hypothesis but are suggestive of others.their original questions or hypothesis but are suggestive of others.
Procedures for conducting ethnographicProcedures for conducting ethnographic research:research: 
Define the phenomenon to be described.Define the phenomenon to be described.
Use qualitative methods to gather data.Use qualitative methods to gather data.
Look for patterns in the data.Look for patterns in the data.
Validate initial conclusions by returning to the dataValidate initial conclusions by returning to the data or collecting more data.or collecting more data.
Recycle through the process or the data.Recycle through the process or the data.
Principles of ethnographyPrinciples of ethnography
 Two sets of hypotheses about human behaviours: Two sets of hypotheses about human behaviours:
naturalistic-ecologicalnaturalistic-ecological
qualitative – phynomenologicalqualitative – phynomenological

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