potential impacts of dangerous climate change. It is, therefore, likely to benecessary to develop and successfully deploy technologies that allow the CO
emissions associated with continued use of fossil fuels to be signiﬁcantlyreduced. The alternative is an unacceptably risky increase in the stock of CO
inthe atmosphere.Carbon capture and storage (CCS) involves the removal of CO
from otherstreams produced at a power plant (or other large source of CO
steel orcement works), followed by transport of the captured CO
to safe long-termstorage,
in a deep geological formation. A number of detailed reviews of CCS technology are available in the literature, including a 2005 special reportby the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Current cost estimates donot give a clear indication of a ‘winning’ technology for CO
capture for use inthe most likely applications, since the technology options that are suﬃcientlyclose to deployment to assess appear to have similar costs, within likelyuncertainty ranges.
It is therefore possible that site-speciﬁc factors (
. coaltype, water requirements, electricity market features) may determine the cap-ture technology that would be used in many cases. A brief introduction to thetechnologies for CO
capture closest to commercial deployment at the time of writing is provided in Appendix A, and CO
storage is discussed in more detailin Chapter 6 of this book.
This chapter will focus on a range of policy options that could be used tosupport deployment of power generation technology options that would allowCO
to be successfully captured and stored. The power sector is chosen as acase study since CO
emissions from power plants made up 41% of the globaltotal in 2006
and many studies, including the ﬁrst report of the UK Committeeon Climate Change,
suggest that deep decarbonisation of overall energysupplies could be achieved by widespread use of electricity following a rapidreduction in CO
emissions from electricity generation.Although much of the literature and public debate on CCS is currentlydominated by coal, CO
capture can be (and probably, eventually, will have tobe) applied to any plant producing CO
. The scope of this chapter, therefore,also includes one ‘oﬀset’ option: the combined use of biomass and CCS. Asbiomass grows it removes CO
from the atmosphere. If this CO
is not re-released to the atmosphere when the biomass is used, then it is possible for netnegative emissions to be obtained, although the overall net beneﬁt dependspartly on the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the whole biomasslifecycle, including production and transport to the point of use.Since it is expected that costs for CCS will normally be dominated by capturecosts, this chapter focuses on improving the economic case for installing andoperating CO
capture at power plants. It will, of course, also be necessary forall aspects of a CCS project to be economically viable, if operated by separateentities, and to be regulated eﬀectively. Useful reviews of the regulationsrequired for complete CCS projects can be found in the literature.
Althoughfurther signiﬁcant work is required to complete the implementation of appro-priate regulatory frameworks, some general principles are beginning to emergeand enter into law in some jurisdictions. For example, the use of an approach to
Jon Gibbins and Hannah Chalmers
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