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9781847559715-00126

9781847559715-00126

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Towards Zero Emission Production – Potential of Carbon Capture in EnergyIntensive Industry
DAVID POCKLINGTON* AND RICHARD LEESE
1 Overview
1.1 Greenhouse Gas Reduction/Issues for Energy IntensiveIndustry
Acknowledgement of the importance of climate change and the need for aglobal solution gathered momentum in the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992, wherethe developed countries agreed to voluntary reductions in their emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels. Subsequently, the Kyoto Protocol – a Treaty of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)-laid down legally binding reductions in the emissions of a basket of sixgreenhouse gases
i
(GHG), to be achieved over the period 2008-2012, on thebasis of 1990 emissions.The Treaty commits industrialised countries to cap their emissionsand reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% comparedto the year 1990, by 2008-2012. The European Community agreed to reduceits emissions by 8% and the UK by 12.5% within the burden sharingagreement.
1
Early ratification of Kyoto was slow and resulted in only smallreductions in GHG emissions. By October 2008, 180 nations had ratified
126
Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, 29Carbon Capture: Sequestration and StorageEdited by R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison
r
Royal Society of Chemistry 2010Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry, www.rsc.org
*
Corresponding author. On 2 March 2009 the British Cement Association merged with the QuarryProducts Asssociation and The Concrete Centre to become the Mineral Products Association(MPA). The work referred to in this chapter was undertaken by the British Cement Association.
i
Carbon dioxide, CO
2
; methane, CH
4
; nitrous oxide, N
2
O; hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs; per-fluorocarbons, PFCs; sulfur hexafluoride, SF
6
.
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   U   N   I   V   E   R   S   I   D   A   D   D   E   C   H   I   L   E  o  n   0   5   N  o  v  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   2   P  u   b   l   i  s   h  e   d  o  n   2   2   D  e  c  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   0   9  o  n   h   t   t  p  :   /   /  p  u   b  s .  r  s  c .  o  r  g   |   d  o   i  :   1   0 .   1   0   3   9   /   9   7   8   1   8   4   7   5   5   9   7   1   5  -   0   0   1   2   6
 
the Kyoto Protocol, including Russia, but not the United States, China, orIndia.The UK has been in the forefront of climate reduction legislation, introdu-cing the Climate Change Levy in 2001,
2
the UK Emissions Trading Scheme in2002,
3
and the Climate Act in 2008.
4
These measures were augmented, and tosome extent duplicated, by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme,
5
the first phaseof which was from 2005 to 2007. Phase II is from 2008 to 2012, to coincide withthe first period of commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, and Phase III from2013 to 2020.The energy-intensive sectors of industry have played a significant role in thedevelopment of this legislation through:
Detailed technical discussions between industry and government on theUK and EU legislation through the UK Emissions Trading Group (ETG),other government/industry groups,
ii
and bilateral meetings with govern-ment departments and their consultants.
Supporting other initiatives to engage in emissions trading, throughcommitment to the ‘‘UK Manifesto on EU ETS’’ initiated by the Secretaryof State for the Environment, speaking alongside government repre-sentatives at conferences in Prague, Berlin and Paris, and meeting dele-gations from the US Senate, California, Australia.
Advocacy through National Associations, such as the British CementAssociation and the CBI, and European bodies, such as CEMBUREAU(European Cement Association) and Business Europe.In addition to the above legislative measures, the Treasury commissionedSir Nicholas Stern to undertake an economic review of the potential impacts of climate change, and the resulting influential report was published in 2007.
6
TheStern Report stated that if annual emissions remained at current levels, thengreenhouse gas levels would reach around 550ppm CO
2
e by 2050. However,the worst impacts of climate change could be avoided if atmospheric GHGlevels were stabilised between 450–550ppm CO
2
e at a cost of 
ca.
1% of globalGDP. Significantly, the report concluded that immediate action would costsubstantially less than action at a later date.A recent analysis by IPCC
7
indicated likely temperature rises:
iii
1.8
1
C rise(range is 1.1 to 2.9
1
C) in a low scenario, and 4.0
1
C (range is 2.4 to 6.4
1
C) in ahigh scenario. Defra’s Chief Scientist has stated
8
that whereas plans for
miti- gation
should be based upon on a 2
1
C rise in global temperatures, those for
adaptation
should assume a 4
1
C temperature rise.
ii
e. g
. the Energy Intensive Users Group (EIUG),
Ad Hoc
Environmental Taxation Steering Group(AHETSG) and the Manufacturers’ Climate Change Group (MCCG).
iii
Global average surface air warming,
1
C, at 2090–2099 relative to 1980–1999.
127
Towards Zero Emission Production – Potential of Carbon Capture
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   U   N   I   V   E   R   S   I   D   A   D   D   E   C   H   I   L   E  o  n   0   5   N  o  v  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   2   P  u   b   l   i  s   h  e   d  o  n   2   2   D  e  c  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   0   9  o  n   h   t   t  p  :   /   /  p  u   b  s .  r  s  c .  o  r  g   |   d  o   i  :   1   0 .   1   0   3   9   /   9   7   8   1   8   4   7   5   5   9   7   1   5  -   0   0   1   2   6
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The UNFCCC 15
th
Conference of the Parties, (COP-15), held in Copenha-gen in December 2009, is providing a stimulus for political action with a view toachieving an international agreement in the
post
-Kyoto period:
26th November 2008:
the UK Climate Change Act received Royal Assent,thus introducing the world’s first long-term legally-binding framework totackle climate change.
1st December 2008:
the UK’s Climate Change Committee was establishedand published its first report detailing,
inter alia
, plans to achieve an 80%reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The cost of achieving this by 2050 isestimated to be 1–2% GDP (slightly higher than the estimate provided byStern). – The Committee has proposed
iv
a GHG budget for the traded
v
sector of 1233MtCO
2
e (2008–2012) dropping to 800MtCO
2
e (2018–2022),which equates to a 35% reduction compared to a reduction of 19% bythe non-traded sector.
17th December 2008
: the European Parliament approved the EU’s Energypackage, aimed at reducing EU greenhouse gas emissions by 20% in 2020relative to 1990, providing 20% of the Community’s energy from renew-ables and cutting primary energy use by 20%.This is expected to cost up to
h
90 billion to 2020 and reduce the EU’s GDPby 0.35–0.5% by that year. The Package is underpinned by four Directives onRenewables, Emissions Trading, Fuel Quality, and Carbon Capture and Sto-rage,
9
and other measures on new car emissions, energy efficient buildings andenergy labelling.Each of these initiatives gives prominence to the role of carbon capture andstorage (CCS). Of the options available for the mitigation of emissions incement manufacturing, carbon capture and storage has been identified by theInternational Energy Agency (IEA) as the only technique that is likely to befeasible, and scenarios have been developed where by 2050 CCS is incorporatedat
ca.
50% of the manufacturing capacity of the developed world. Othercommentators have suggested that since each element of carbon capture andstorage has been demonstrated at a non-trivial scale, CCS is ‘‘
clearly feasibleand no fundamental research breakthrough
[is]
required 
’’.
10
Whilst, at one level, this statement presents an accurate general summary of the situation, it is not sufficiently focused to provide a sound basis for thedevelopment of government policy or industrial strategy. These demand arigorous examination of many interrelated issues, and this chapter provides anoverview of the factors that an energy-intensive industry must take into con-sideration when determining whether to install plant for the capture of carbondioxide emissions.
iv
The intended budget reflects a successful international climate change agreement at the UnitedNations Framework Convention (UNFCCC) Conference of Parties (COP 15) in Copenhagen2009.
v
Energy-intensive firms regulated by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme.
128
David Pocklington and Richard Leese
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   U   N   I   V   E   R   S   I   D   A   D   D   E   C   H   I   L   E  o  n   0   5   N  o  v  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   2   P  u   b   l   i  s   h  e   d  o  n   2   2   D  e  c  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   0   9  o  n   h   t   t  p  :   /   /  p  u   b  s .  r  s  c .  o  r  g   |   d  o   i  :   1   0 .   1   0   3   9   /   9   7   8   1   8   4   7   5   5   9   7   1   5  -   0   0   1   2   6
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