the Kyoto Protocol, including Russia, but not the United States, China, orIndia.The UK has been in the forefront of climate reduction legislation, introdu-cing the Climate Change Levy in 2001,
the UK Emissions Trading Scheme in2002,
and the Climate Act in 2008.
These measures were augmented, and tosome extent duplicated, by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme,
the ﬁrst phaseof which was from 2005 to 2007. Phase II is from 2008 to 2012, to coincide withthe ﬁrst period of commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, and Phase III from2013 to 2020.The energy-intensive sectors of industry have played a signiﬁcant role in thedevelopment of this legislation through:
Detailed technical discussions between industry and government on theUK and EU legislation through the UK Emissions Trading Group (ETG),other government/industry groups,
and bilateral meetings with govern-ment departments and their consultants.
Supporting other initiatives to engage in emissions trading, throughcommitment to the ‘‘UK Manifesto on EU ETS’’ initiated by the Secretaryof State for the Environment, speaking alongside government repre-sentatives at conferences in Prague, Berlin and Paris, and meeting dele-gations from the US Senate, California, Australia.
Advocacy through National Associations, such as the British CementAssociation and the CBI, and European bodies, such as CEMBUREAU(European Cement Association) and Business Europe.In addition to the above legislative measures, the Treasury commissionedSir Nicholas Stern to undertake an economic review of the potential impacts of climate change, and the resulting inﬂuential report was published in 2007.
TheStern Report stated that if annual emissions remained at current levels, thengreenhouse gas levels would reach around 550ppm CO
e by 2050. However,the worst impacts of climate change could be avoided if atmospheric GHGlevels were stabilised between 450–550ppm CO
e at a cost of
1% of globalGDP. Signiﬁcantly, the report concluded that immediate action would costsubstantially less than action at a later date.A recent analysis by IPCC
indicated likely temperature rises:
C rise(range is 1.1 to 2.9
C) in a low scenario, and 4.0
C (range is 2.4 to 6.4
C) in ahigh scenario. Defra’s Chief Scientist has stated
that whereas plans for
should be based upon on a 2
C rise in global temperatures, those for
should assume a 4
C temperature rise.
. the Energy Intensive Users Group (EIUG),
Environmental Taxation Steering Group(AHETSG) and the Manufacturers’ Climate Change Group (MCCG).
Global average surface air warming,
C, at 2090–2099 relative to 1980–1999.
Towards Zero Emission Production – Potential of Carbon Capture
D o w n l o a d e d b y U N I V E R S I D A D D E C H I L E o n 0 5 N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 2 P u b l i s h e d o n 2 2 D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 9 o n h t t p : / / p u b s . r s c . o r g | d o i : 1 0 . 1 0 3 9 / 9 7 8 1 8 4 7 5 5 9 7 1 5 - 0 0 1 2 6