the importance of climate policies in setting business strategies,and manifold implications of policy decisions and their eﬀects on the way thatbusinesses operate.
The most recent publications highlight that social andspatial issues are important in determining the range of land types which arelikely to become available for new woodland development; that the main dif-ﬁculties associated with the use of wood for energy have been policy-orientedand socio-economic, and technological, rather than fuel-related; and thatcomparative indicators of the cost-eﬀectiveness of alternative climate changemitigation strategies in forestry are needed.
Surprisingly, despite the size of their forests and large areas of marginalagricultural land, there remains only limited room for forest sector policies tosequester carbon in the major wood-producing countries, such as Canada,Finland, Sweden or Russia.
In Canada, for example, there is a limit to theamount of carbon oﬀset credits that can be claimed on existing forestland(largely, publicly owned), and the focus is now shifting to aﬀorestation of agricultural land, where the role of private landowners is important and thepotential of aﬀorestation is around 1Mha.
The analysis of the role and place of forestry to mitigate climate change is morerelevant to countries which have a substantial potential for forestry develop-ment.
Therefore, carbon inventory and monitoring, cost-eﬀectiveness of aﬀorestation and forest management, social acceptability of various carbonsequestration options, existing challenges and opportunities of woodland devel-opment on high carbon soils, using wood in renewable energy projects, and inwood products, are highly relevant topics, for instance in Scotland. The reports bythe Sustainable Development Commission
and the Fraser of Allander Insti-tute
have provided information on the potential of the wood fuel market and oncompetitiveness of diﬀerent wood fuel scenarios. A review addressing biomassproduction and consumption in Scotland has been published by SEERAD.
The reports provide a broad picture concerning technological aspects, GHGlife-cycle emissions, air pollution impacts of biomass production and con-sumption. However, an overall assessment of the role of forests in climatic andatmospheric changes is needed to develop a better understanding and, whereappropriate, to improve, simplify and extend the manner in which this role istaken into account. Through the analysis of biogeochemical processes involved,and by assessing the opportunities for forestry to sequester and store carbon, itbecomes possible to suggest climate policies and measures at various spatiallevels and to advise on their proper sequencing in time. Institutional and eco-nomic aspects of CCS in forests are areas that merit special attention.It is anticipated that forestry-based activities could help reduce CO
con-centrations in the atmosphere by increasing biotic carbon storage, decreasingemissions and producing biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels. Reducing ratesof deforestation, increasing forest regeneration, agroforestry, improving forestand land-use management, and growing energy crops are activities that aresupposed to assist countries in coping with the changing climate.
In practice,however, existing opportunities are only partially used, as this chapter willdiscuss further.
Carbon Capture and Storage in Forests
D o w n l o a d e d b y U N I V E R S I D A D D E C H I L E o n 0 5 N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 2 P u b l i s h e d o n 2 2 D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 9 o n h t t p : / / p u b s . r s c . o r g | d o i : 1 0 . 1 0 3 9 / 9 7 8 1 8 4 7 5 5 9 7 1 5 - 0 0 2 0 3