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Industry’s toxic bane to atmosphere

Industry’s toxic bane to atmosphere

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Published by Chand Che
Chromium fume hazard
Chromium fume hazard

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Chand Che on Mar 18, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/01/2014

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1
Industry’s toxic bane to
atmosphere
……………………
friends on earthThe past century has witnessed atremendous growth in the industrial technologyworldwide. This revolution has been the root for amultitude of problems that berate humans and otherlife forms. Foremost of them is global warmingcaused by the emission of fumes and gases fromthermal power plants, exhaust gases from dieselautomobiles and toxic gases from chemicalindustries that contain CO
2
, O
3
, NO
x
, SO
x
and PM.This fact conveyed to the world leaders by theecological scientists at the earth summit in Rio hasled to the development of new technology to reducethe emission of the above gases.
Global Warming
Mother earth helps to sustain life by
absorbing the sun’s rays that
help act as a catalystfor various biochemical processes. As we knowfrom our rigorous science lessons, one such processis photosynthesis where plants in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll convert the carbon-di-oxide from the atmosphere into starch and theoxygen that we respire. The presence of at least20% oxygen in air is imperative for the survival of the ever increasing living beings on earth.But the increase in pollutants and the blatantdestruction of evergreen forests, especially theAmazon forests known as the lungs of earth hasdrastically reduced photosynthesis and disrupted thecomposition of clean air.
The largest forest of our planet containing 1/5 of all fresh water, home to 1/4 of all species, 5-10 million types of flora and fauna-this treasure is being destroyed. At first they bring saws after the saws come the fire after the fire, cattle and plantationsin place of 10 million species. Industry, waste and megacities amidst the jungle! every minute an area as large as 10 football fields is destroyed  to turn the resources into money.
In addition toxic fumes result in suffocation,asthma bronchitis, skin diseases, eye problems andcancers in flora and fauna.
(Health Aspects of Air Pollution with Particulate Matter, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide- Report on a WHOWorking Group Bonn, Germany
 – 
 2003)
The presence of heavy metal particulate matter in airprevents the cooling action at night and thusincreases global warming. This results in the meltingof the arctic and Antarctic icecaps and lead to thesubmersion of coastal areas.
Decisions enacted to reduce global warming
 
1)
Levying carbon tax to countries that failto reduce their co
2
emission fromautomobiles and industries.
2)
Promote afforestation.
3)
Utilizing green technologies that reduceemission of gases that induce globalwarming.One such solution is the transition from sub criticalpower plants that have excessive carbon emissions tosuper critical power plants that filters and extractsnitrogen, sulphur and unburned carbon from theexhaust flue gases and burns them in their respectivegas turbine units and produce additional MW. Eversince 1990 many MNCs have designed
 once through super
 
 critical boilers
that utilize less coaland produce more energy.
 
2
Super Critical power plants produced by BHELin IndiaPlace / OwnershipState Capacity
1BharNTPCBihar2 x 660MW(B&TG)2KrishnaPattnamAPGENCOAndra Pradesh2 x 800MW(B)3BharaJP AssociatesUttar Pradesh3 x 660MW(B&TG)4LalithpurBajaj groupsUttar Pradesh3 x 660MW(B&TG)5YeramarusKPCLKarnataka2 x 800MW(B&TG)6EdlapurKPCLKarnataka1 x 800MW(B&TG)7BellaryKPCLKarnataka1 x 700MW(B&TG)8SingrauliD.B powersMadhyaPradesh2 x 660MW(B&TG)
Total
9,700 MW(B&TG)+1600 MW (B)
BHEL, a pioneer in boiler manufacture in India,in collaboration with Alstom - USA, Benson Siemens
 – 
 German has been installing (660MW, 800MW) SuperCritical power plants.The flow of water at high pressure (260 Bar)through the spiral-wound evaporator tubing maintainedat a stifling 1300
0
C temperature by the combustion of coal in the vertically tubed furnace results in evaporationand after successive stages a high temperature, highpressure super critical fluid (260 Bar, 580
0
C) thatmechanically rotates the shaft of steam turbines thatdrive the electromagnetic dynamo (generator) togenerate electricity.
The risks of cracks and meltdown of boilertubes due to high pressure, temperature and speedover years of operation is minimized by an alloythat forms the heart of this technology.
 
Best
MNC’s with super critical boiler technology
1 Benson siemens Germany2 Sulzer Switzerland3 Bobcock &Wilcox America4 Foster & Wheeler America5 Alstom America6 Hitachi power systems Japan7 Mitsubishi Japan8 Toshiba Japan9 Technopromo Export Russia10 OJSC RussiaThe planning commission of India decidedto install 72,330MW thermal power in its 11
th
and12
th
plan and that a majority of them have to besuper critical power plants. As per this many supercritical plants are
under construction
of which 9 areope
rational.
Chinese, Korean and Russian power plantmanufacturers in technological collaboration with
MNC’s have designed super critical power plants as
shown by the following table.
 
Producer/ 
Ownership
State Capacity
1Technopromexport(OJSC), Russia / 
 NTPC 
 Bihar,Chattisgarh
3 x 660MW (TG)3 x 660MW(B&TG)
2Harbin, SEPCO,BSTG, Bobcock,Shangai electric -China / 
Reliance power, Essar, Lancoinfratech
 Gujarat,Andrapradesh, Haryana,Maharashtra,Chattisgarh,Jharkand, Odisha,Madhya Pradesh
2 x 660MW (B)40 x 660MW(B&TG)
3Toshiba
 – 
Japan, / 
TATA power, JSW, NTPC, Essar
 Gujarat,Karnataka
2 x 660,5 x 800,3 x 800MW (TG)
4Doosan heavy inds
 – 
 Korea / 
TATA power, NTPC 
 Chattisgarh,Gujarat,Karnataka
3 x 660,5 x 800,3x800MW (B)
5L&T-MHI / 
 Jaypee associates, Mahagenco, APgenco, KPCL, NTPC 
 Maharashtra,Madhya Pradesh,Andra Pradesh
5 x 660MW(B&TG)2 x 800MW (TG)
6Hitachi
 – 
Japan / BGRenergy,
 NTPC 
Maharashtra,Bihar, UttarPradesh, WestBengal,Chattisgarh,Odisha,Karnataka
6 x 660MW (B)5 x 800MW (TG)
Total31680 MW(B&TG) +13660 MW(B)+15300 MW(TG)
 
 
3
BHEL, Truchirapalli, TamilNadu manufacturessuper critical boilers' steam generators day andnight with the tireless effort of around 1500 talentedwelders, more than 5000 fitters, 2500 supervisorsand engineers. Every year P/T 91,92 (ASTM A335 / A335M, ASTM A213 / A213M) ferritic andaustenitic alloys weighing 5 lakh metric tons areimported from developed nations for themanufacture 660/800 MW super critical steamgenerators and around 180 tons of poisonous fumesare released into the atmosphere during the weldingprocess. The long lines of trucks that deliver the rawmaterial and transport the finished components are asight to behold in this industrial city. A tangible
metallic smell is omnipresent in the locality. It’s
unfortunate that an ISO 9000, OHSAS 18001certified company with an annual turnover of 150billion INR has been tardy in setting up fumeextractors, portable UV and x-ray shields and inproviding air supplied respirators, fire retardantwelding suits and other hi-tech safety equipment toensure a safe working environment to itsemployees. This might be due to their tightschedules & targets and their innocent lack of knowledge about the OSHA final rules
(
02/28/2006)
 on Occupational Exposure to HexavalentChromium
(Fed Register #: 71:10099-10385,Standard Number: 1910; 1915; 1917; 1918; 1926).
 
Hopefully the prestigious receiver of 
Golden Peacock Award 2011 for Occupational Health and Safety
 
will live up to its standards.
 
What is that alloy?
The ferritic or austenitic alloy of chromium,molybdenum, nickel, cobalt, boron and other heavymetals in iron with its high temperature andpressure resistant characteristics is used tomanufacture boiler tubes weighing thousands of tons. Numerous hazards are faced by the workerswho weld (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding at 4000
0
c)the alloy by preheating at 350
0
C and laternormalize, harden and temper for hours at 500
0
-700
0
C in LPG furnaces. Super critical boilertechnology helps reduce global warming and theemission of PM and harmful gases like Co2, No
x
,So
x
. Ironically the manufacture of super criticalboilers in the power equipment productionindustries results in the emission of the same.These gases spread in the atmosphere and affect theflora and fauna within 10km radius from theindustry. Skin problems, lung disorders, andvarious cancers are the adverse effects of theseharmful gases on humans (WHO/IARC/Monographvolume 49,86,100C). Every year an average of 70kg co
2
, No
x
, So
x
, chromium VI and other PM isreleased to the atmosphere by a welder. To preventthis federal agencies like OSHA (OccupationalSafety and Health administration) and EIA havestipulated that fume extractors have to be installedin the welding points and the filtered extracts haveto be stored in airtight bags and kept track of foraccounting the accumulated hazardous waste.NASA (USA), Iran and other countries areresearching ways to make these poisonous wastebiodegradable.

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