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Volume 2 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS April, 2012
Parameterized Special Theory of Relativity (PSTR)
Florentin Smarandache
University o New Mexico, Gallup, NM 87301, USAE-mail: smarand@unm.edu
We have parameterized Einstein’s thought experiment with atomic clocks, supposingthat we knew neither i the space and time are relative or absolute, nor i the speed o light was ultimate speed or not. We have obtained a Parameterized Special Theory o Relativity (PSTR), frst introduced in 1982. Our PSTR generalized not only Einstein’sSpecial Theory o Relativity, but also our Absolute Theory o Relativity, and introducedthree more possible Relativities to be studied in the uture. Ater the 2011 CERN’ssuperluminal neutrino experiments, we recall our ideas and invite researchers to deepenthe study o PSTR, ATR, and check the three new mathematically emerged Relativities4.3, 4.4, and 4.5.
1 Einstein’s thought experiment with the light clocks
There are two identical clocks, one is placed aboard o arocket, which travels at a constant speed
v
with respect tothe Earth, and the second one is on the Earth. In the rocket,a light pulse is emitted by a source rom
A
to a mirror
B
thatreects it back to
A
where it is detected. The rocket’s move-ment and the light pulse’s movement are orthogonal. There isan observer in the rocket (the astronaut) and an observer onthe Earth. The trajectory o light pulse (and implicitly the dis-tance traveled by the light pulse), the elapsed time it needs totravel this distance, and the speed o the light pulse at whichis travels are perceived di
erently by the two observers (de-pending on the theories used — see below in this paper).According to the astronaut (see Fig. 1):
Δ
=
2
c
,
(1)where
Δ
time interval, as measured by the astronaut, or thelight to ollow the path o double distance 2
, while
c
is thespeed o light.According to the observer on the Earth (see Fig. 2):2
l
=
v
Δ
,
s
=
|
AB
|
=
|
BA
|
=
|
BB
|
,
l
=
|
AB
|
=
|
b
A
|
,
(2)where
Δ
is the time interval as measured by the observer onthe Earth. And using the Pythagoras’ Theorem in the righttriangle
Δ
ABB
, one has2
s
=
2
√
2
+
l
2
=
2

2
+
v
Δ
2
2
,
(3)but 2
s
=
c
Δ
, whence
c
Δ
=
2

2
+
v
Δ
2
2
.
(4)Squaring and computing or
Δ
one gets:
Δ
=
2
c
1

1
v
2
c
2
.
(5)
Figure 1Figure 2
Whence Einstein gets the ollowing time dilation:
Δ
=Δ

1
v
2
c

2
.
(6)where
Δ
>
Δ
2 Parameterized Special Theory of Relativity (PSTR)
In a more general case when we don’t know the speed
x
o the light as seen by the observer on Earth, nor the relationshipbetween
Δ
and
Δ
, we get:
x
Δ
=
2

2
+
v
Δ
2
2
.
(7)But
=
c
Δ
2
, thereore:
x
Δ
=
2

c
Δ
2
2
+
v
Δ
2
2
,
(8)or
x
Δ
=

c
2
(
Δ
)
2
+
v
2
(
Δ
)
2
.
(9)
28 Florentin Smarandache. Parameterized Special Theory oRelativity (PSTR)
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