This part of the
SPSS Base Syntax Reference Guide
discusses general topics pertinent to us-ing command syntax. The topics are divided into five sections:
explains command syntax, including command specification, command or-der, and running commands in different modes. In this section, you will learn how toread syntax charts, which summarize command syntax in diagrams and provide an easyreference. Discussions of individual commands are found in an alphabetical reference inthe next part of this manual.
discusses different types of files used by the program. Terms frequently mentionedin this manual are defined. This section provides an overview of how files are handled.
contains important information on general rules and conventions concerningvariables and variable definition. In this section, you will find detailed information onvariable formats.
describes expressions that can be used in data transforma-tion. Functions and operators are defined and illustrated. In this section, you will find acomplete list of available functions and how to use them.
Date and Time
deals with functions and formats used with date and time expressions. Inthis section, you will find ways to read and convert date and time, use them in analysis,and display them in output.
Commands are the instructions that you give the program to initiate an action. For the pro-gram to interpret your commands correctly, you must follow certain rules.
Each command described in this manual includes a syntax diagram that shows all the sub-commands, keywords, and specifications allowed for that command. By recognizing sym-bols and different type fonts, you can use the syntax diagram as a quick reference for anycommand.Figure 1is an example.
Lines of text in italics indicate limitation or operation mode of the command.
Elements shown in upper case are keywords defined by SPSS to identify commands,subcommands, functions, operators, and other specifications. InFigure 1,
is thecommand and
is a subcommand.
Elements in lower case describe specifications you supply. For example,
indicatesthat you need to supply a list of variables.
Elements in bold are defaults. SPSS supports two types of defaults. When the defaultis followed by **, as
) is in effect if the