© 2007 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any meanswithout permission in writing from the Carnegie Endowment. The Carnegie Endowment normally does not take institutional positions on public policyissues; the views represented here do not necessarily reﬂect the views of the Endowment, itsstaff, or its trustees. For electronic copies of this report, visit www.CarnegieEndowment.org/pubs.Limited print copies are also available. To request a copy, send an e-mail to pubs@CarnegieEndowment.org.Carnegie Endowment for International Peace1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036Phone: 202-483-7600Fax: 202-483-1840www.CarnegieEndowment.org ABOUT THE AUTHOR Thomas Carothers is vice president for studies—international politics and governance at theCarnegie Endowment for International Peace. A leading authority on democratization anddemocracy promotion, he has researched and worked on democracy-building programsaround the world for 20 years with many U.S., European, and international organizations. Hehas written numerous books on democracy promotion including most recently
Confrontingthe Weakest Link: Aiding Political Parties in New Democracies
Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: The Problem of Knowledge.
The author wishes to thank Michael Grosack for his substantial research contributions to thisreport. He is also grateful to Matthew Frumin and Jennifer Windsor for their incisive com-ments on an early draft.