Sub: Statistics Topic: ANOVA
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Basic experimental design concepts
The term experimental design refers to a randomization plan for assigning participants toexperimental conditions and the statistical analysis associated with the plan.The simplest experimental design is the randomization and analysis plan that is used with a t test forindependent samples. A t test for dependent samples uses a more complex randomization plan, butthe added complexity is usually accompanied by greater power. The next level of design complexity isthe randomization and analysis plan that is used with a completely randomized ANOVA design (CR-pdesign). This design is appropriate for an experiment that has
one treatment with p ≥ 2 levels. As you
will see, the randomized block design and the completely randomized factorial design described inthis chapter utilize features of the designs discussed earlier.
Controlling Nuisance Variables
A large error variance,, can mask or obscure the effects of a treatment. Hence, in designing anexperiment, you want to minimize variables that contribute to error variance. Other variables that cancontribute to error variance include administering the levels of a treatment under differentenvironmental conditions say; at different times of the day or locations
and having differentresearchers administer the treatment levels. Variation in the dependent variable that is attributableto such sources is called nuisance variation. Three approaches to controlling or minimizing theseundesired sources of variation are as follows:Hold the nuisance variables constant
for example, use only 19-year-old women participants
andhave the same researcher administer the treatment levels at the same time of day and in the sameresearch facility.