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Basic experimental design concepts

# Basic experimental design concepts

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05/13/2014

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Sub: Statistics Topic: ANOVA
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The Homework solutions from Classof1 are intended to help students understand the approach to solving the problem and not forsubmitting the same in lieu of their academic submissions for grades.
Basic experimental design concepts
The term experimental design refers to a randomization plan for assigning participants toexperimental conditions and the statistical analysis associated with the plan.The simplest experimental design is the randomization and analysis plan that is used with a t test forindependent samples. A t test for dependent samples uses a more complex randomization plan, butthe added complexity is usually accompanied by greater power. The next level of design complexity isthe randomization and analysis plan that is used with a completely randomized ANOVA design (CR-pdesign). This design is appropriate for an experiment that has
one treatment with p ≥ 2 levels. As you
will see, the randomized block design and the completely randomized factorial design described inthis chapter utilize features of the designs discussed earlier.
Controlling Nuisance Variables
A large error variance,, can mask or obscure the effects of a treatment. Hence, in designing anexperiment, you want to minimize variables that contribute to error variance. Other variables that cancontribute to error variance include administering the levels of a treatment under differentenvironmental conditions say; at different times of the day or locations
and having differentresearchers administer the treatment levels. Variation in the dependent variable that is attributableto such sources is called nuisance variation. Three approaches to controlling or minimizing theseundesired sources of variation are as follows:Hold the nuisance variables constant
for example, use only 19-year-old women participants
andhave the same researcher administer the treatment levels at the same time of day and in the sameresearch facility.

Sub: Statistics Topic: ANOVA
*
The Homework solutions from Classof1 are intended to help students understand the approach to solving the problem and not forsubmitting the same in lieu of their academic submissions for grades.
Assign the participants randomly to the treatment levels so that known and unsuspected sources of variation among the participants are distributed over the entire experiment and thus do not affect just one or a limited number of treatment levels. If the treatment levels must be administered atdifferent times of the day or in different locations, randomize the assignment of treatment levels totimes and locations. This research strategy, along with the strategy of holding some variablesconstant, is used in the completely randomized design.Include the nuisance variable as one of the factors in the experiment. The randomized block designuses this research strategy in conjunction with the two just described.To include a nuisance variable as one of the factors in an experiment, it is necessary to form blocks of participants so that the participants within a block are more homogeneous with respect to thenuisance variable than those in different blocks. Perhaps an example will help to clarify the procedure.The larger the sample, the more confident a researcher can be that the effects of nuisance variableshave been evenly distributed across the treatment conditions. The randomized block design enables aresearcher to use all three strategies for controlling nuisance variables.