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UWB Signal Propagation for Outdoor Wireless Communications-11

UWB Signal Propagation for Outdoor Wireless Communications-11

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Published by: Klaus Rocca on Mar 19, 2013
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11/02/2013

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Ultra-WideBandwidthUWBSignalPropagation forOutdoorWirelessCommunications 
MoeZ.Win,FernandoRamrez-Mireles,andRobertA.ScholtCommunicationSciencesInstitute DepartmentofElectricalEngineering-SystemsUniversityofSouthernCalifornia,LosAngeles,CA90089-2565USA MarkA.BarnesTimeDomainSystems,Inc.6700OdysseyDrive,Suite100,Huntsville,AL35806USA 
ABSTRAC
|Ultra-widebandwidthUWBsignalpropa-gationexperimentisperformedinaruralterraintochar-acterizetheoutdoorUWBsignalpropagationchannel.ThebandwidthofthesignalusedinthisexperimentisinexcessofoneGHz.Thetestapparatusandmeasurementtechniquearedescribed.Fromthemeasuredpulseresponsethemean delay,delayspread,propagationlossandforestationlossaredetermined.
I.INTRODUCTIO
Propagationenvironmentsplacethefundamentallimita-tionsontheperformanceofthewirelesscommunicationssys-tems.Anaccuratecharacterizationofthepropagationchan-neliscrucialinmanyaspectsofcommunicationsystemsen-gineeringsuchasderivingoptimalmethods,estimatingthesystemperformance,performingdesigntrade-os,etc.Many propagationmeasurementshavebeenmadeovertheyearsonbothindoorandoutdoorchannelswithmuchnarrowerbandwidths"withemphasisonurbanandman-madeenvi-ronments.However,characterizationofUWBsignalpropa-gationchannelinaruralterrainhasnotbeenavailablepre-viouslyintheliterature.Previousmeasurementsandmodelsareinadequateforapplicationsthatrequirecommunicationsmainlyinnaturalterrainwithverylittlemanmadeobjects.Thispaperdescribesatestapparatusandtechniqueofapi-lotexperimenttocharacterizeUWBcommunicationchannelthroughaforest.
II.EXPERIMENTALDESIG
A.MeasurementSystem.
Themeasurementsystemforobtainingtheimpulsere-sponseisshowningure1.Thetestapparatusconsists
TheresearchdescribedinthispaperwassupportedinpartbytheJointServicesElectronicsProgramundercontractF49620-94-0022,andinpartbytheIntegratedMediaSystemsCenter,aNationalScienceFoundationEngineeringResearchCenterwithadditionalsupportfrom theAnnenbergCenterforCommunicationattheUniversityofSouthernCaliforniaandtheCaliforniaTradeandCommerceAgency.ThegraduatestudiesofMr.RamrezaresupportedbytheConacytGrant.ThecorrespondingauthorcanbereachedbyE-mailatwin@milly.usc.edu
ofaperiodicpulsegeneratorthattransmitsUWBradar-likepulses,withbandwidthontheorderof1.3GHz,atever500nanosecondsusingasteprecoverydiode-basedpulserconnectedtoaUWBantenna.Aprobeantennawasplacenearthetransmitter'santennaandaxedlengthofcablewasroutedtothereceiverfortriggering.Thereforeallrecorded multipathproleshavethesameabsolutedelayreference,andtimedelaymeasurementsofthesignalsarrivingtothereceiverantennaviadierentpropagationpathscanbemade.Thereceiverissetinsuchawaythatevery50nanosecondswindowofmeasurementscontains1024samplesthroughouttheexperiments.Thisimpliesthatthetimeresolutionis48.828picosecondsbetweenthesamplesandtheequivalentsamplingrateis20.48GHz.
1.3 GHzUWBANT.1.3 GHzUWBANT.1.3 GHzUWBANT.UWB TRANSMITTERCH4HP 54121SAMPLINGSCOPETRIGCOMPUTER23 dBLNAPROBEANTENNA100’CABLE
Fig.1.BlockDiagramshowingthetestapparatusconguration.
 
B.MeasurementEnvironment
ThetestareaistypicalofthedensenativeupperAlabamforest,consistingofsouthernpines,oaks,dogwoods,cedars,sugarmaples,thicketsandpoisonivy.Themultipathprop-agationchannelisfrozenduringthemeasurementtimeby makingsurethatpeopleinthevicinityofthetransmitterandreceivingantennashavestoppedmoving.
C.ExperimentalProcedur
Ashortdurationpulseistransmittedasanexcitationsig-nalofthepropagationchannel.Thereceivedsignalrepre-sentstheconvolutionwiththeexcitationpulseandimpulseresponseofthechannel.Timevaryingcharacteristicofthechannelcanbeobservedbyperiodicrepetitionofthepulsetransmission.Apulserepetitiontimeofthispulseequalt500nsissucientlyshorttocharacterizethetimevarying natureoftheindividualpropagationpulse,andlongenough toensurethatmultipathresponseofthepreviouspulsetrans-missionhasdecayed.Usingtheaveragecapabilityofthereceiverapparatus,32sequentiallymeasuredmultipathpro-lesatthesesameexactlocationareaveragedtoreducenoiselevels.Duringeachofthemultipathprolemeasurements,boththetransmitterandreceiverarekeptstationary.Themeasurementsaremadeatcfeetawayfromthetransmitteranddfeetdeepintothelineoffoliage.Figure2ashowsthe200nanosecondslongtypicalmultipathmeasurementwherethereceiverlocatedatc,d=10,0feet.Similarresultsforc,d=30,20andc,d=50,40areshowningure2band2c,respectively.Thereceivedsignalismatched-ltered toproducethecorrespondingpower-delayprolesshownatthebottomofingures2a,2band2c.
III.MULTIPATHPROFILEPARAMETERS 
Thebasebandtransmittedpulseis
t
.Thechannelisrepresentedbymultiplepathshavingrealpositivegains
f
 
k
g
andpropagationdelays
f
 
k
g
,where
isthepathindex.Thus,thechannelimpulseresponseisgivenby 
t
k
 
k
t
 
k
;
where
istheDiracdeltafunction.Thereceivedsignalisthetimeconvolutionof
t
an
t
andisgivenby 
t
k
 
k
t
 
k
:
Thissignalismatched-lteredtoimprovethesignaltnoiseratio.Thelteredsignalisgivenby 
t
k
 
k
 
t
 
k
;
where
 
t
istheconvolutionof
t
wit
t
.Inthisexperimentweassumethatthereisnooverlapofpulses,i.e.,
j
 
k
 
l
j
 
2nanosecondswhe
6
l
.Hence,afterpassingthroughasquareenvelopedetector,thepowerproleis
s
t
j
t
j
2
k
 
2
k
j
 
t
 
k
j
2
:
Figure2showsthreeexamplesof
t
,
t
and 
s
t
.
A.RMSDelaySpreadandMeanExcessDela
Twosimpleparametersthatareusefulindescribingtheoverallcharacteristicsofthemultipathprole
2
t
arethermsdelayspread 
 
 
2
 
2
where
 
n
k
 
nk
 
2
k
k
 
2
k
;
=1
;
2
;
andthemeanexcessdelay 
 
.Theaboveparameterscanbeobtaineddirectlyfromthereceivedpowerprole
s
t
Saleh,1987Hashemi,1993.Denethereceivedpowerprolemo-ments
n
k
t
k
n
s
t
k
;
=0
;
1
;
2
;
andthetransmittedpulsemoments
n
k
t
k
n
 
2
t
k
;
=0
;
1
;
2
;
where
an
arethetimeswhere
s
t
an
 
t
starttakingvaluesdierentfromzero,respectively.Alsodenethecorrespondingaverages
t
ns
n
0
;
=1
;
2
;t
n
n
0
;
=1
;
2
;
andthevariances
 
2
s
t
2
s
t
s
2
; 
2
t
2
t
2
:
Itcanbeshownthat
 
t
s
t
;
an
 
 
2
s
 
2
:
Theexperimentalvaluesfor
 
an
 
areshownintableI.Itcanbeseenthat
 
an
 
increasesasafunctionofdistance,exceptthelastmeasurement.

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