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Published by Chiu-On Ng

An outline on the application of the mathematical technique of homogenization to Taylor dispersion in pipe or channel flows.

An outline on the application of the mathematical technique of homogenization to Taylor dispersion in pipe or channel flows.

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Homogenization Technique Applied toProblems of Taylor Dispersion

Chiu-On Ng

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong,Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong

Abstract

An outline is presented in this paper on the application of the mathematicaltechnique of homogenization to the deduction of effective mass transport equationsfor Taylor dispersion. This technique is essentially an asymptotic method of averaging, by which one may systematically derive the coefficient of dispersionvalid at a long time for any Taylor dispersion problems.

1 Introduction

In the mass transport of a species, advection and dispersion are the two basictransport mechanisms, and it is often necessary to deduce in a general manner theTaylor (1953, 1954) dispersion coefficient. Conventionally the Aris (1956) methodof moments is the mathematical technique to do the job. Instead of finding thedispersion coefficient directly, the method is used to first determine the statisticalmeasures. The second spatial moment, for example, corresponds to the variance of the concentration distribution, the rate of change of which gives the dispersioncoefficient. Application of this method however is known to have a couple of drawbacks. Firstly, analytical solutions to the moment transformed equations existonly for simple cases. Secondly, the statistical parameters like the centroid, varianceand skew coefficients do not in general convey a complete and direct picture of theconcentration distribution. Thirdly, one may not use the method to obtain dispersioncoefficients that are functions of the longitudinal coordinate because the transportequations will no longer have spatial dependence in this direction after the momentintegral transformation is applied.In sharp contrast with the Aris moment method, the method of homogenization (e.g.,see a review by Mei et al., 1996) is a more efficient and powerful method of deriving effective transport equations. The advection velocity and Taylor dispersioncoefficient can be deduced as explicit functions of the sectional geometry,hydrodynamics, mixing and other effects. In this paper the steps of applying thehomogenization method to dispersion in a channel flow are outlined. The method is based on the asymptotic technique of multiple scales, and therefore the orders of physical variables have to be stated

a priori

. Variables and equations are expandedin terms of a small ratio of two vastly different length-scales. It is shown that at theleading order the transport is dominated by advection while dispersion shows up at alonger time-scale. The Taylor dispersion coefficient, which can be shown positive-definite, is expressible in terms of a micro-cell function, which for simplegeometries can be found analytically.

2 Basic equations and assumptions

For illustration, let us consider an elementary case of non-reactive transport in aconfined channel with simple boundary conditions. It should be noted that thehomogenization technique can be applied in general to more complex problems thanis shown below.

Ω

S x yu(y,z) z

Fig.1 Unidirectional flow in a long channel of uniform section, where

x

=longitudinal coordinate, (

y,z

) = sectional coordinates,

Ω

= cross-section, and

S

= boundary of

Ω

.For transport of an inert species in a unidirectional flow along a long channel of uniform section (Fig. 1), the transport equation reads

(

22

,

C C C u D D C t x x

∂ ∂ ∂+ = + ∇ ⋅ ∇∂ ∂ ∂

)

(1)where is the mass concentration of the species,

u u

(,,,)

C C x y z t

=

(,)

y z

=

is the fluidvelocity,

(,)

D D y z

=

is the diffusion (molecular or eddy) coefficient, and the nabla isthe sectional gradient operator

( )

/, /

y z

∇ ≡ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

. The channel wall is impermeable,and therefore the flux at the wall must be zero:

0 on ,

D C n S

∇ ⋅ =

(2)where is the normal vector to the boundary wall. We assume that there exists asmall ratio

n

ε

of the length-scale in the longitudinal direction

L

to that in thetransverse direction . That is,

( ) ( ) ( )

/1 where , ,.

L x O L y z

ε

≡ << = =

O

(3)We further assume that the Peclet number for the transport is sufficiently large.Specifically,

( )

1

/

Pe uL D O

ε

−

≡ =

(4)where the overbar denotes sectional average. Physically this condition means thatthe longitudinal dispersion time-scale would be one order of magnitude slower thanadvection.

In order to examine the order of each term in the transport equation, let us introducethe following normalized variables (marked by a caret):

( )

1

ˆˆˆˆ, , /, , .ˆ

x Lx t L u t u uu D DD

−

= ∇ = ∇ = = =

(

2222

ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆˆ.ˆˆˆ

u C C C u D D LD t x L x

∂ ∂ ∂ + = + ∇ ⋅ ∇ ∂ ∂ ∂

)

C

( )

2

Pe O

ε ε

=

, while the first term on the right-hand side is of order

2

ε

.Let us now return to physical variables, but keep

ε

in the equation for identification:

(

222

.

C C C u D Dt x x

ε ε ε

∂ ∂ ∂+ = + ∇ ⋅ ∇∂ ∂ ∂

)

C

1

/

T L u

=

is shorter by one order of magnitude than that for longitudinal dispersion

( )

22

/

T L D O T

1

/

ε

= =

. Perturbations equations are now obtained upon substituting thefollowing expansions into the transport equation and boundary condition:(8)

2012

,

C C C C

ε ε

→ + + +

1

///

t t

ε

2

.

t

∂ ∂ → ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂

(9)

3 Perturbation equations

The

O

problem is

(1)

( )

0

0 in ,

D C

∇ ⋅ ∇ = Ω

(10)

0

0 on .

C n S

∇ ⋅ =

(11)Clearly,

C

is independent of and

0

y

:

( )

00

,.

C C x t

=

(12)The concentration is uniformly distributed across the section at the leading order, asany transverse variations of the concentration can be smoothed by diffusion at atime-scale much shorter than

T

.

1

At

()

O

ε

, we have

( )

0011

in ,

C C u D C t x

∂ ∂+ = ∇ ⋅ ∇∂ ∂Ω

(13)

1

0 on .

C n S

∇ ⋅ =

(14)Let us use an overhead bar to denote section-average

1d.

f f A

Ω

≡Ω

∫∫

(15)

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