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Virendra Air

Virendra Air

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Published by Virendra Korade

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Published by: Virendra Korade on Mar 19, 2013
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03/19/2013

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MANDAR EDUCATION SOCITY’S
 
Rajaram Shinde College Of M.B.A
Pedhambe, Tal. Chiplun, Dist, Ratnagiri 415603.
(Affiliated to University of Mumbai & recognized by AICTE)
Presentation on
ENVIORNMENT MANAGEMENT
 
Presentation topic
 
AIR POLLUTION
Presented By
VIRENDRA VISHNU KORADE
 
MMS IInd YEAR, SEM IV
Roll no
 – 
 Student sign Faculty sign
VIRENDRA
 
KORADE
 
PROF.
 
ARVIND
 
BIRADAR 
 
 
AIR POLLUTION
Air pollution
is the introduction of chemicals,  particulate matter,or  biological materialsthat cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or causedamage to thenatural environmentor built environment,into theatmosphere.  The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential tosupport life on planetEarth.Stratosphericozone depletiondue to air pollution has long  been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth'secosystems. Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst pollution problems in the 2008Blacksmith InstituteWorld's Worst Polluted Placesreport.
Pollutants
Main articles:PollutantandGreenhouse gas Beforeflue-gas desulfurizationwas installed, the emissions from this power plant inNew Mexicocontained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.  Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased groundlevel ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides.A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment isknown as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets,or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made.Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutantsare directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, thecarbonmonoxidegas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories.Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant isgroundlevel ozone
 — 
one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog.Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitteddirectly and formed from other primary pollutants.Major primary pollutants produced by human activity include:
 
x
) - especially sulfur dioxide, a chemical compound with theformula SO
2
. SO
2
is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes.Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion
 
generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO
2
, usually in the presence of acatalyst such as NO
2
, forms H
2
SO
4
, and thus acid rain This is one of the causesfor concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power sources.
 
x
) - especiallynitrogen dioxideare emitted from hightemperature combustion, and are also produced naturally duringthunderstorms byelectrical discharge.Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or  plumedownwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO
2
. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has acharacteristic sharp, biting odor. NO
2
is one of the most prominent air pollutants.
 
Carbon monoxide(CO)- is a colourless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product byincomplete combustionof fuel such as naturalgas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide.
 
2
) - a colourless, odorless, non-toxicgreenhouse gasalsoassociated withocean acidification,emitted from sources such as combustion,cement production, andrespiration.It is otherwise recycled in the atmosphere inthecarbon cycle. 
 
Volatile organic compounds- VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In thisfield they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH
4
) andnon-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gaswhich contributes to enhanced global warming. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are alsosignificant greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging thelife of methane in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on localair quality. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene andxylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia through prolongedexposure. 1,3-butadiene is another dangerous compound which is often associatedwith industrial uses.
 
Particulate matter - Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. Incontrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas together. Sources of particulatematter can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originatingfrom volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and seaspray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power  plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols
 — 
those made byhuman activities
 — 
currently account for about 10 percent of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linkedto health hazards such as heart disease, altered lung function and lung cancer.
 
Persistent free radicalsconnected to airborne fine particles could causecardiopulmonary disease.
 
Toxicmetals,such aslead,cadmiumandcopper. 
 
Chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) - harmful to theozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use.

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