Pipe born drinking water supplies are generally safe for making concrete. Water of doubtful quality can be simply tested
by making two sets of cubes or cylinders of the same mix, one with the doubtful water, and the other (used as a reference)
set with distilled water, purified water, tap water, or other drinkable water of good quality. If the suspected water produces
concrete of 28 day compressive strengths at least 90% of the strength of the companion (reference) set, it can be
Salt or brackish water can cause dampness of the concrete, efflorescence (white deposits of precipitated salts on the
surface of the concrete), increased risk of corrosion (rust) damage to embedded reinforcement, and damage to paint
systems. It is therefore advisable not to use such water for durable concrete work, and its use is generally avoided.
(Concrete which has to be placed permanently under sea water would obviously not require such precautions).
1. Avoid using wastewater from tanneries, from industrial, chemical and metals related plants (e.g. galvanizing plants, battery making plants); as some salts of manganese, tin, zinc, copper and lead can cause significant reductions in strength and large variations in the setting time of concrete.
or by causing a large amount of air to be entrained in the concrete mix. Algae may also be present on
aggregate surfaces, in which case they reduce the bond between the aggregate particles and the cement paste
and so will reduce concrete strengths. 5. Sugar. This is to be avoided at all costs
The amount of the various ingredients (aggregate(s), cement, water, admixtures and/or additives) in the concrete, and not
simply the fact that they are present, is obviously important. The activity of deciding the mix proportions is called mix
design, and on large jobs is usually the responsibility of materials engineers or technicians, or is left to ready mixed
concrete companies who sell concrete to such projects. (On smaller jobs, such as house building, the building or small
walk ways, drains, aprons, etc., concrete is often proportioned by volume measurements). The main purpose of mix
design is to decide on a set of proportions which will enable a workable practical concrete to be made, having sufficient
strength and durability. It involves choosing a suitable water cement ratio, and a proportioning of aggregate which will
enable all the stone particles to be coated with sufficient water / cement paste and be able to be packed into a solid mass,
relatively free from air spaces (voids).
The following equations summarize what takes place:
Concrete may be seen as a man made rock, similar to so called conglomerates (cemented gravels) which occur in nature.
it is made up of a system of rock particles or fragments of different sizes (the so called "aggregate") which are packed
together, and fastened (cemented) by a hardened paste of a hydraulic cement (usually Portland cement with or without
other materials) and water. In one form or the other, cementitious concrete is the material most used in structural (i.e.
Load bearing) applications in construction, sometimes competing with steel, sometimes working together with it, in so
called reinforced concrete is known for its Compressive Strength (which is much better than its tensile strength) and for its
Durability (some existing Roman concretes are nearly 2,000 years old and are still in good condition) and for its ability to
be molded into nearly any desired shape, on or off the construction site. This latter quality makes it adaptable to an
extremely wide range of construction applications.
These points will now be briefly examined: The final properties of hardened concrete are greatly affected by its behaviour in the "wet\u00e2\u20ac\u02dc or freshly mixed condition and by the processes it undergoes while in that state; it is therefore essential that the making and handling of concrete be guided by a proper understanding of this behaviour, if its full potential is to be realized in practice. The properties and performance of concrete can be affected by any or all of the following *
the particular aggregates, and depends on the aggregates chosen and in what amounts they are mixed). Grading affects how much water and cement ("cement paste") is required to cover all the stone particles and enable a practical concrete to be made.
called \u00e2\u20ac\u02dcparent") stone or rock from which the aggregate was removed; and (b) The natural as well as man made
processes to which these stone fragments were subjected.
These factors considerably affect how the aggregate will behave while the fresh concrete is being handled and molded.
Although the history of Portland Cement is comparatively short, the use of the structural binding agent dates back
thousands of years. One of the earliest examples is that of the water tanks at Aden which were constructed 6000 B.C. and
are still in use today. Analysis of the mortar used by the Egyptians in the construction of the \u00e2\u20ac\u0153Pyramid of Cheops\u00e2\u20ac in
In Italy, the first people to employ mortar in their buildings were the Etruscans. It was from them that the Romans derived their knowledge of the art. It says much for their ability as builders that the dome of the Pantheon of Rome, constructed with a type of concrete, is still in an excellent state of preservation today.
With the fall of the Roman Empire, all knowledge of cement seemed to have vanished and nothing more was heard of it until the early part of the eighteenth century when its use could be traced to England, in almost exactly the same form as that used by the Egyptians and Romans!
After considerable research, Smeaton found that by mixing lime and pozzolana, a substance was produced which,
became hard and solid, with the addition of water. Although this was not Portland Cement, it was a vast improvement over
lime mortars. The fact that Smeaton\u00e2\u20ac\u2122s lighthouse, which he built with his own product, stood for 120 years on the
Eddystone Rock is evidence of his success.
Very little notice was taken of Smeaton\u00e2\u20ac\u2122s discovery at the time but 50 years later, the French Chemist, Vicat, went a step further by burning pulverized chalk and clay together in the form of a paste. His product, like Smeaton\u00e2\u20ac\u2122s received very little attention. They even carefully picked out and discarded the very portion of the burnt material which would have given them Portland Cement! It was not until 1824, that Joseph Aspdin, a Leeds bricklayer, discovered what is known as Portland Cement.
Aspdin found that by mixing finely pulverized clay in specified proportions, burning them to a high temperature and then grinding the resultant clinker, he was able to produce a hydraulic binding material far superior to any product known at the time. It was Aspdin who named it \u00e2\u20ac\u0153Portland Cement\u00e2\u20ac because when set it looked like \u00e2\u20ac\u0153Portland Stone.\u00e2\u20ac
Since Aspdin\u00e2\u20ac\u2122s discovery, the production of cement has increased immensely and much improvement in the
standards of quality. Today, the manufacture cement differs greatly from that of early cements. \u00e2\u20ac\u0153Portland Cement\u00e2\u20ac\u009d
as we know it, is an active combination of silicates, aluminates, and ferro aluminates of lime, obtained by grinding and
mixing lime, silica, iron-oxide and alumina, burning the mixture to incipient vitrification, and then grinding the resultant
clinker to a fine powder with the addition of a small percentage of gypsum in order to control or regulate the setting time.
For nearly a quarter of a century before the year 1947 (the date of incorporation of Caribbean Cement Company), several
groups of the investors had investigated the feasibility of manufacturing cement in Jamaica but no one had come forward
to build a factory until 1950.
In 1944?, Jamaica used 54,000 tons of cement, and it appeared that for a long time in the future Jamaica was destined to
import all its cement requirements from England.
Then in 1949 a group of men, among them Sir William Stephenson and Sir Neville Ashenheim, established the Caribbean
Cement Company Limited and secured from the Government a licence under the Cement Industry (Encouragement and
Control) Law which conferred on the company the exclusive right to manufacture and sell ordinary Portland Cement in
Jamaica. Cement was manufactured in Jamaica for the first time on January 23,1952, in a plant with a rated capacity of
100,000 tons. This satisfied Jamaica\u00e2\u20ac\u2122s needs at the time, and allowed the company to even compete in the export
In 1964, with the completion of the second expansion, the plant\u00e2\u20ac\u2122s rated capacity was 400,000 tons per annum.
In 1988, there was a third expansion which took place with the introduction of a dry process kiln and a Cement Mill with a
rated capacity of 120 tons per hour. The capacity of the company was increased to 600,000 tons per year. Cement
production increased to 435,124 tons in 1990.
A calcareous and an argillaceous material in the approximate proportion of 80% of the former and 20% of the latter are
ground together to produce a slurry or a raw meal. The slurry or raw meal is then homogenized and burnt in rotary kilns at
a very high temperature. The resultant clinker with an addition of about 5% of gypsum are ground together to a specific
fineness to produce Portland Cement.
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