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Human Growth and Development Theories

Human Growth and Development Theories

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Published by Thuganamix
Human Growth and Development Theories
1. Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory
2. Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory
3. Havighurst’s Developmental Stage and Tasks
4. Levinson’s Seasons of Adulthood
4. Sullivan’s Interpersonal Model of Personality Development
5. Piaget’s Phases of Cognitive Development
6. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
7. Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development
8. Fowler’s Stages of Faith

Human Growth and Development Theories
1. Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory
2. Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory
3. Havighurst’s Developmental Stage and Tasks
4. Levinson’s Seasons of Adulthood
4. Sullivan’s Interpersonal Model of Personality Development
5. Piaget’s Phases of Cognitive Development
6. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
7. Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development
8. Fowler’s Stages of Faith

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Published by: Thuganamix on Mar 10, 2009
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08/03/2014

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Human Growth and Development Theories
The term
 both refers to dynamic process. Oftenused interchangeably, these terms havedifferent meanings.
Growth anddevelopment
are interdependent,interrelated process. Growth generallytakes place during the first 20 years of life.; development continues after that.
Growth:
1.Is
physical change
and increase in size.2.It can be measured quantitatively.3.Indicators of growth includes height, weight, bonesize, and dentition.4.
Growth
rates vary during different stages of growthand development.5.The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal,neonatal, infancy and adolescent stages and slowsduring
childhood
.6.Physical growth is minimal during adulthood.
Development:
1.Is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression.2.It is the capacity and skill of a person to adapt to
theenvironment
.3.
Development
is the behavioral aspect of growth.
THEORIES:THEORIES:
 
STAGE AGE CHARACTERISTICS
1. OralBirth to 1½ y/oCenter of pleasure: mouth (major source of gratification &exploration)
 
Primary need: SecurityMajor conflict: weaning2. Anal1½ to 3 y/oSource of pleasure: anus & bladder (sensual satisfaction &self-control)Major conflict:
toilet training
3. Phallic4 to 6 y/oCenter of pleasure: child’s genital (masturbation)Major conflict: Oedipus & Electra Complex4. Latency6 y/o to pubertyEnergy directed to physical & intellectual activitiesSexual impulses repressedRelationship between peers of same sex5. GenitalPubertyonwardsEnergy directed towards full sexual maturity & function &development of skills to cope with the environment
STAGEAGECENTRALTASK (+) RESOLUTION(-) RESOLUTION1. InfancyBirth-18 mosTrust vsMistrustLearn to trust othersMistrust, withdrawal,estrangement2. Earlychildhood1½ to 3 y/oAutonomy vsShame & doubtSelf control w/o lossof 
self esteem
Ability of cooperate& express oneself Compulsive, self-restraint or compliance.Willfulness &defiance.3. Latechildhood3 to 5 y/oInitiative vsguiltLearns to becomeassertiveAbility to evaluateone’s own behavior Lack of 
self-confidence
.Pessimism, fear of wrongdoing.Over-control & over-restriction.4. School Age6 to 12 y/oIndustry vsInferiorityLearns to create,develop &manipulate.Develop sense of competence & perseverance.Loss of hope, senseof being mediocre.Withdrawal fromschool & peers.
 
5.Adolescence12–20 y/oIdentity vs roleconfusionCoherent sense of self.Plans to actualizeone’s abilitiesFeelings of confusion,indecisiveness, & possible anti-social behavior.6. YoungAdulthood18-25 y/oIntimacy vsisolationIntimate relationshipwith another person.Commitment to work and relationships.Impersonalrelationships.Avoidance of relationship, career or lifestylecommitments.7. Adulthood25-65 y/oGenerativity vsstagnationCreativity, productivity, concernfor others.Self-indulgence, self-concern, lack of interests &commitments.8. Maturity65 y/o todeathIntegrity vsdespair Acceptance of worth& uniqueness of one’sown life.Acceptance of death.Sense of loss,contempt for others.
3. Havighurst’s Developmental Stage and Tasks
DEVELOPMENTALSTAGEDEVELOPMENTAL TASK 
1. Infancy & early childhood- eat solid foods- walk - talk - control elimination of wastes- relate emotionally to others- distinguish right from wrong through development of aconscience- learn sex differences and sexual modesty- achieve personal independence- form simple concepts of social & physical reality2. Middle childhood- learn physical skills, required for games

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