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{0a03d7c3-2c57-48e2-8650-8f85a3152e28}_guidetospectrumanalyzers_v92011_emea

{0a03d7c3-2c57-48e2-8650-8f85a3152e28}_guidetospectrumanalyzers_v92011_emea

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Published by: Jose Ivan Caicedo Torres on Mar 20, 2013
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 www.anritsu.com
Guide to SpectrumAnalysis
 
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................................... 4Frequency Domain / Time Domain ..................................................................................................................................... 4SPECTRUM ANALYZERS ......................................................................................................................................................... 7Types ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7Basic Operation ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8Characteristics ........................................................................................................................................................................ 9Frequency Range ..................................................................................................................................................... 9Frequency Resolution .............................................................................................................................................. 11Sensitivity and Noise Figure .......................................................................................................................................13Video Filtering or Averaging ..........................................................................................................................................15Signal Display Range .....................................................................................................................................................16Dynamic Range ..........................................................................................................................................................17Frequency Accuracy .......................................................................................................................................................18 APPLICATIONS ...................................................................................................................................................................19 Amplitude Modulation ..........................................................................................................................................................19Modulation Factor – m ........................................................................................................................................... 20Modulation Frequency - fm ..................................................................................................................................... 24Modulation Distortion ............................................................................................................................................... 26Frequency Modulation ......................................................................................................................................................... 28Bandwidth of FM Signals ........................................................................................................................................ 29FM Measurements with a Spectrum Analyzer ............................................................................................................. 31 AM Plus FM (Incidental FM) ..................................................................................................................................... 33PULSE AND PULSE MODULATED SIGNALS ..................................................................................................................... 35Line Spectrum ....................................................................................................................................................................... 37Pulse Response ............................................................................................................................................................... 37Pulse Spectrum .................................................................................................................................................................... 38MEASUREMENT EXAMPLES ................................................................................................................................................. 39Intermodulation Distortion .................................................................................................................................................... 39C/N measurement ............................................................................................................................................................... 40Occupied Frequency Bandwidth ...................................................................................................................................... 41a) XdB Down method ...............................................................................................................................................41b) N% method .................................................................................................................................................... 41 Adjacent Channel Leakage Power ................................................................................................................................... 42Burst Average Power ................................................................................................................................................... 44
2| Guide to Spectrum Analysis
 
Appendix A
Spectrum Analyzer Conversion Factors .............................................................................................................................. 45SWR – Reflection Coefficient – Return Loss ................................................................................................................... 46Power Measurement .................................................................................................................................................... 47
Appendix B
 Amplitude Modulation .......................................................................................................................................................... 48
Appendix C
Frequency Modulation ......................................................................................................................................................... 51Bessel Functions ................................................................................................................................................................ 52
Appendix D
Pulse Modulation .................................................................................................................................................................. 54
Appendix E
Intermodulation Distortion / Intercept Points ..................................................................................................................... 56
Spectrum/Signal Analyzer Selection Guide
...............................................................................................................................58While careful attention has been taken to ensure the contents of this booklet are accurate, Anritsu can-not accept liability for any errors or omissions that occur. We reserve the right to alter specifications of products without prior notice.
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