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Table Of Contents

1 Introduction: What is this course about?
1.1 Some Basic Ideas
1.2 Babylonians and Greeks
1.3 Greek Classics Come to Baghdad
1.4 Monasteries and Universities
1.5 Galileo
1.6 Newton
1.7 From Newton to Einstein
1.8 What about Other Civilizations?
1.9 Plan of the Course
2 Counting in Babylon
2.1 The Earliest Written Language
2.2 Weights and Measures: 60s everywhere!
2.4 Fractions
2.5 Ancient Math Tables
2.6 How Practical are Babylonian Weights and Measures?
2.7 Pythagoras’ Theorem a Thousand Years before Pythagoras
3 Early Greek Science: Thales to Plato
3.1 The Milesians
3.2 Early Geometry
3.3 Early Geometry According to Proclus
3.4 The Pythagoreans: a Cult with a Theorem, and an Irrational Discovery
3.5 The Square on the Hypotenuse
3.6 Rational and Irrational Numbers
3.7 What’s so Important about Irrational Numbers?
3.8 Change and Constancy in the Physical World
3.9 Hippocrates and his Followers
3.10 Plato
3.11 References
4 Motion in the Heavens: Stars, Sun, Moon, Planets
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Looking at the Stars
4.3 Motion of the Sun
4.4 Motion of the Moon against the Starry Vault
4.5 Motion of the Planets
5 Aristotle
5.1 Beginnings of Science and Philosophy in Athens
5.2 Plato’s Idea of a Good Education
5.3 Aristotle and Alexander
5.4 Aristotle Founds the Lyceum
5.5 Aristotle’s Science
5.6 Aristotle’s Method
5.7 “Causes”
5.8 Biology
5.9 Elements
5.10 Dynamics: Motion, And Why Things Move
5.11 Natural Motion and Violent Motion
5.12 Aristotle’s Laws of Motion
5.13 Planetary Dynamics
5.14 Aristotle’s Achievements
6 Measuring the Solar System
6.1 How Big is the Earth?
6.2 How High is the Moon?
6.3 How Far Away is the Sun?
7 Greek Science after Aristotle
7.1 Strato
7.2 Aristarchus
7.3 Euclid
7.4 Plato, Aristotle and Christianity
7.5 Archimedes
7.6 Archimedes’ Principle
7.7 Archimedes and Leverage
7.8 Apollonius
7.9 Hypatia
8 Basic Ideas in Greek Mathematics
8.1 Closing in on the Square Root of 2
8.2 Zeno’s Paradoxes
8.3 Achilles and the Tortoise
8.4 The Arrow
8.5 Instants and Intervals
8.6 Speed at an Instant
8.7 The Beginning of Calculus
8.8 Archimedes Begins Calculating Pi
8.9 Squaring the Circle
8.10 Eudoxus’ Method of Exhaustion
8.11 Archimedes does an Integral
8.12 Conclusion
9 How the Greeks Used Geometry to Understand the Stars
9.1 Crystal Spheres: Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle
9.2 Measuring the Earth, the Moon and the Sun: Eratosthenes and Aristarchus
9.3 Cycles and Epicycles: Hipparchus and Ptolemy
9.4 Ptolemy’s View of the Earth
10 How Classical Knowledge Reached Baghdad
10.1 The Classical Achievement in Mathematics and Science
10.2 Why did Mathematics and Science Grind to a Halt?
10.3 But Some Christians Preserved the Classical Knowledge…
10.4 How the Nestorians Helped Science Survive
10.5 On into Persia
10.6 The Advent of Islamic Rule
10.7 The House of Wisdom: al-Khwarismi
11 Later Islamic Science
11.1 The Islamic World
11.2 Omar Khayyam
11.3 Al-Tusi
12 Galileo and the Telescope
12.1 Copernicus Challenges Ptolemy’s Scheme
12.2 The Evolution of the Telescope
12.3 Mountains on the Moon
13 Life of Galileo
13.1 Books
13.2 Like Father, like Son
13.3 Pendulums and Pulses
13.4 The Roof of Hell
13.5 Venice: Wine, Women and Dialogue
13.6 The Telescope: Heaven Abolished?
13.7 Galileo Wins Over Some Jesuit Astronomers…
13.8 …but Alienates Some Others
14 Scaling: Why Giants Don’t Exist
15 Galileo’s Acceleration Experiment
15.1 Summarizing Aristotle’s View
15.2 Two New Sciences
15.3 Naturally Accelerated Motion
15.4 Galileo’s Acceleration Hypothesis
15.5 Slowing Down the Motion
15.6 Galileo’s Acceleration Experiment
15.7 Actually Doing the Experiment
16 Naturally Accelerated Motion
16.1 Distance Covered in Uniform Acceleration
16.2 A Video Test of Galileo’s Hypothesis
16.3 Throwing a Ball Upwards
16.4 Speed and Velocity
16.5 What’s the Acceleration at the Topmost Point?
16.6 The Motion of Projectiles
16.7 Compound Motion
17 Using Vectors to Describe Motion
17.1 Uniform Motion in a Straight Line
17.2 Uniform Motion in a Plane
17.3 Relative Velocities: a Child Running in a Train
17.4 Aristotle’s Law of Horizontal Motion
17.5 Galileo’s Law of Horizontal Motion
17.6 Galileo’s Law of Vertical Motion
17.7 Describing Projectile Motion with Vectors
17.8 Acceleration
18 Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler
19 Isaac Newton
19.1 Newton’s Life
19.2 Projectiles and Planets
19.3 The Moon is Falling
20 How Newton built on Galileo’s Ideas
20.1 Newton’s Laws
20.2 Acceleration Again
20.3 An Accelerating Body that isn’t Changing Speed
20.4 Finding the Acceleration in Circular Motion
20.5 An Accelerating Body that isn’t Moving
20.6 Galileo’s Analysis of Motion: Two Kinds
20.7 Newton Puts Them Together
20.8 Force is the Key
20.9 Newton’s First Law: no Force, no Change in Motion
20.10 Newton’s Second Law: Acceleration of a Body is Proportional to Force
20.11 What About Same Force, Different Bodies?
20.12 Falling Bodies One More Time: What is Mass?
20.13 Mass and Weight
20.14 The Unit of Force
20.15 Newton’s Third Law: Action and Reaction
20.16 Newton’s Second Law in Everyday Life
20.17 Gravity
20.18 The Law of Gravity
20.19 Weighing the Earth
21 The Speed of Light
21.1 Early Ideas about Light Propagation
21.2 Measuring the Speed of Light with Jupiter’s Moons
21.3 Starlight and Rain
21.4 Fast Flickering Lanterns
21.5 Albert Abraham Michelson
21.7 Michelson Measures the Speed of Light
22 The Michelson-Morley Experiment
22.1 The Nature of Light
22.2 The Wavelike Nature of Sound
22.3 Is Light a Wave?
22.4 If Light is a Wave, What is Waving?
22.5 Detecting the Aether Wind: the Michelson-Morley Experiment
22.6 Einstein’s Answer
23 Special Relativity
23.1 Galilean Relativity again
23.2 Generalizing Galilean Relativity to Include Light: Special Relativity
23.3 You Really Can’t Tell You’re Moving!
23.4 Truth and Consequences
24 Special Relativity: What Time is it?
24.1 Special Relativity in a Nutshell
24.2 A Simple but Reliable Clock
24.3 Looking at Somebody Else’s Clock
24.4 Fitzgerald Contraction
24.5 Experimental Evidence for Time Dilation: Dying Muons
25 Special Relativity: Synchronizing Clocks
26 Time Dilation: A Worked Example
27 More Relativity: The Train and The Twins
27.1 Einstein’s Definition of Common Sense
27.2 Trapping a Train in a Tunnel
27.3 The Tunnel Doors are Closed Simultaneously
27.4 Or are They?
27.5 Does the Fitzgerald Contraction Work Sideways?
27.6 How to Give Twins Very Different Birthdays
27.7 The Twins Stay in Touch
27.8 Figuring the Observed Time between Flashes
27.9 What does she see?
27.10 What does he see?
27.11 The Doppler Effect
28 Momentum, Work and Energy
28.1 Momentum
28.2 Momentum Conservation and Newton’s Laws
28.3 Work
28.4 Energy
28.5 Kinetic Energy
29 Adding Velocities: A Walk on the Train
29.1 The Formula
29.2 Testing the Addition of Velocities Formula
30 Conserving Momentum: the Relativistic Mass Increase
30.1 Momentum has Direction
30.2 Momentum Conservation on the Pool Table
30.3 A Symmetrical Spaceship Collision
30.4 Just How Symmetrical Is It?
30.5 Einstein Rescues Momentum Conservation
30.6 Mass Really Does Increase with Speed
30.7 Kinetic Energy and Mass for Very Fast Particles
30.8 Kinetic Energy and Mass for Slow Particles
30.9 E = mc²
31 General Relativity
31.1 Einstein’s Parable
31.2 Some Consequences of the Equivalence Principle
31.3 General Relativity and the Global Positioning System
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Galileo and Einstein - Fowler

Galileo and Einstein - Fowler

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Published by: jlnlima on Mar 20, 2013
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