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Vacuum engineering at a photon collider?

Vacuum engineering at a photon collider?

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Published by silagadze
Introduction into the physics of Disoriented Chiral Condensate.
Introduction into the physics of Disoriented Chiral Condensate.

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Published by: silagadze on Mar 10, 2009
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01/29/2013

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Vacuum engineering at a photon collider?
E. A. Kuraev
1
and Z. K. Silagadze
21
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141 980 Dubna, Russia
2
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630 090 Novosibirsk, Russia
Abstract
The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide a rather detailed and self-containedintroduction into the physics of the Disoriented Chiral Condensate (DCC) for thephoton (and linear) collider community, and to indicate that such physics can besearched and studied at photon colliders. Some side tracks are also occasionallyfollowed during the exposition, if they lead to interesting vistas. For gourmets, theBaked Alaska recipe is given in the appendix.
1 Introduction
The twentieth century witnessed tremendous progress in our understandingof the fundamental building blocks of matter and their interactions. Not theleast role in this success was played by continuous advance in acceleratortechnologies. At the beginning of the new century, accelerator-based exper-iments are expected to preserve their leading role in the field of high-energyphysics [1].Over the seven decades since Lowrence’s first cyclotron one has observeda nearly exponential growth in effective energies of the accelerators by theincrement factor of about 25 per decade (the Levingston law [2]. By theeffective energy one means the laboratory energy of particles colliding witha proton at rest to reach the same center of mass energy). At that the costper unit effective energy has decreased by about four orders of magnitudes.This is indeed a remarkable trend and it was fed by a succession of newideas and technologies [2]: the principle of phase stability, strong focusing,high impedance microwave devices, superconducting technologies, storagerings and beam cooling.However the accelerators were becoming ever bigger and more expensiveon the whole. We have already entered “the dinosaur era” with monstrousmachines and the Levingston tendency is slowing its pace. The problem
1
 
with the circular
e
+
e
colliders is that the synchrotron radiation severelylimits maximal attainable energy. It is believed that this technology hasreached its limits at LEP and no other bigger project of this type will beever realized. Instead the linear
e
+
e
colliders are considered as a viablealternative. Extension of the existing linear accelerator technology towardshigher accelerating gradients and smaller emittance beams is expected tomake real a design of the TeV scale linear colliders. Further progress withthe conventional techniques is problematic unless some radically new ideaappears. In fact the high gradient efficient acceleration is a tough thing.In a free electromagnetic wave the
field is at right angle to the particlemomentum and no efficient acceleration can be achieved. For efficient accel-eration one has to have matter very near or within the beams. Then energyconsiderations combined with the survivability of the accelerating structurelimits the attainable acceleration gradient [1,2]. The proton circular colliders still have some reserve left because, owing tothe heaviness of the proton, the synchrotron radiation constraint is expectedonly at very high energies. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 7 TeVproton beams is under construction now. LHC is a very important high-energy physics project and we believe that its results will determine thefuture shape of the field. An analogous collider with the center of massenergy about 100 TeV seems also feasible and maybe the Very Large HadronCollider (VLHC) will be the last monstrous dinosaur of this type.Other possibilitiesinclude the muon colliders first suggested by G. I. Bud-ker many years ago [3]. Muons, being about 207 times heavier than elec-trons, experience much less radiative energy losses, which are inversely pro-portional to the forth power of the particle mass. It seems that the efficientmulti-TeV muon colliders can be constructed despite the fact that the muonis an unstable particle [3].But why all the fuss? Are these future very complex and costly accelera-tors really necessary? The past research led to the triumph of the StandardModel. At that the revolutionary 70’s were followed by decades of the moreor less routine verification of the Standard Model wisdom – the situationeloquently expressed by Bjorken some time ago [1]: “a theorist workingwithin the Standard Model feels like an engineer, and one working beyondit feels like a crackpot”. Since then “crackpotshave developed a stringtheory as the main challenge to the standard paradigm [4]. This “Theoryof Everything” is full of deep and beautiful mathematical constructs andis generally considered as the most promising road towards understanding
2
 
fundamental physics. The only trouble with it is that it will be extremelydifficult to check experimentally the predictions of this theory, because themost direct predictions refer to the nature of space-time at the Plank scale,
10
19
GeV, and no experimental method seems to be ever able to accesssuch energies in a foreseeable future. So the string theorists are doomedto face the fatal question “can there be physics without experiments?” [5]for a long time. Therefore, on the one hand, we have a clear experimentaland theoretical success up to the electroweak scale,
100 GeV, where theStandard Model reigns, and, on the other hand one has a very ambitioustheory without any clues how to check it experimentally. But what liesin between, worth of billions of dollars to spend in future accelerators anddetectors, to investigate?Despite its splendid success, nobody doubts that the Standard Model willbreak down sooner or later. There are several reasons why the StandardModel cannot be the final theory and why some new physics beyond theStandard Model is expected [6]:
S
(3)
×
S
(2)
×
(1) symmetry group defines separate gauge theorieswith three different coupling constants. The conceptual similarity of these theories is begging for unification.
The family problem – why are there three quark-lepton families?
The origin of the quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, as wellas of the
C
violation.
Solid experimental evidence of the neutrino oscillations require non-vanishing neutrino masses and therefore some extension of the Stan-dard Model. However, very minimal extension might be sufficient toaccommodate neutrino masses.
The strong
C
problem – why is the allowed
C
violating
θ
-term inthe QCD Lagrangian very small or absent?
The hierarchy problem – why is the electroweak scale so different fromthe Plank scale?
The cosmological constant problem – why gravity almost does not feelthe presence of various symmetry-breaking condensates?But how far is this expected new physics? The logical structure of theStandard Model itself hints that quite interesting and crucial things can
3

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