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Manualul Pentru Incalzire Danfoss - Chapter7

Manualul Pentru Incalzire Danfoss - Chapter7

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Published by valican
Manualul Pentru Incalzire Danfoss - Chapter7
Manualul Pentru Incalzire Danfoss - Chapter7

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Published by: valican on Mar 20, 2013
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8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS
CHAPTER 7 •
HOW TO SELECT SIZE OF PRODUCTS AND COMPONENTS.
139
How to select size ofproducts and components.
Thermostatic valves.
Choice of valve size.Existing one-pipe systems.
All the radiators must be equipped with thermostatic valves to be able tocontrol the room temperature,use the incidental heat gain efficiently anddistribute the heat according to requirements.This requires a by-pass ateach radiator,and the resistance in the by-pass has to be larger than inthe main pipe so that a certain amount of water is let to in the radiator.Good operation is obtained if the thermostatic valve has a low resistance,like valves intended for gravity circulation,and the by-pass is of the samedimension as the main pipe.The by-pass is equipped with a restrictioncreating the required resistance.
 Two-pipe systems.
 The valve size is determined on the basis of the required flow and theavailable differential pressure.Maximum differential pressure is limitedto 25 kPa as far as noise is concerned.The available differential pressurefor each thermostatic valve is obtained from the pipe calculation.
Flow.
 The flow is calculated from the heat requirement in watts,W,and thetemperature drop across the radiator in Kelvin,K.The valve size can theneither be determined from a selection flow chart or be calculated.
Existing one-pipe system with thermostatic valveand by-pass.Distribution through radiator and by-pass.Fig.7:1By-pass insert
 
8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS
Valve size.
 The last valve in the design circuit,(which determines the pump headthroughout the entire system) ought to have a resistance of about 5 kPa. The other valves should be sized according to the differential pressureavailable for them,i.e.the penultimate valve in the design circuit has anavailable pressure equal to the resistance across the last valve plus theresistance in the pipes between the two valves.
CHAPTER 7 •
HOW TO SELECT SIZE OF PRODUCTS AND COMPONENTS.
140
Available
p for the risers in a two-pipe system.Fig.7:2
167140133125
p 80 kPa
p 72 kPa
p 9 kPa
p 5 kPa
3571020305070100,001,002,003,005,007,01,02,03123457102030kPa0,10,2,3 ,4 ,5,7123mWG0,01,02,04,060,1,2,3Bar,1,05,07
500300200
0,600,450,360,270,200,120,080,04N123456771
Finding the pre-set values for the thermostatic valves in the above heating system.Fig.7:3l/hRTD-N 15Pre-set valuel/s
      ∆
   p
   v   a    l   v   e
Radiatorl/h
p kPaPre-set11405N71409712514072*3,514014080*3,5*too high
p,will create a problem with noise.k
vs
-value
k1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NRTD-N 15 0,04 0,08 0,12 0,20 0,27 0,36 0,45 0,60RTD-N 20 0,10 0,15 0,17 0,25 0,32 0,41 0,62 0,83
v
RTD-N 25 0,10 0,15 0,17 0,25 0,32 0,41 0,62 0,83
 
Pre-setting.
Adjusting a valve implies a calculation of the difference between theavailable and the required pressure for the valve.The resistance across the valve should then be increased,through adjustment,so that all theavailable pressure is utilized.The setting values providing the requiredresistance can be read from the selection flow charts.The values for each valve should be stated on the drawing so that the setting can be made inconnection with the installation.
Choice of control unit.
 There are many conditions influencing the function of the thermostatic valve.The control unit has to sense the room temperature to be able tocontrol it.This is not possible if it is covered by a long curtain or acabinet.Heat radiation from warmer surfaces,for example heating pipes,a warmfloor,electrical devices etc.,deceives the sensor into believe that it is warmer than it actually is in the room.Downdraught and draught from open windows or doors deceives thesensor into believe that it is colder in the room than it actually is.A control unit with a built-in sensor has difficulties in managing theseproblems.A control unit with a separate capillary tube connected sensortherefore should be chosen.The sensor can then be placed where itdetects the right room temperature.
CHAPTER 7 •
HOW TO SELECT SIZE OF PRODUCTS AND COMPONENTS.
141
8 STEPS - CONTROL OF HEATING SYSTEMS
The control unit has to sense the room temperature to be able to control it.Fig.7:4

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