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Transition to Advanced Mathematics Proof Techniques Number Theory Chapter 1 OutlineRatings: (0)|Views: 111|Likes: 0

Published by Jonathan Salcedo

Chapter 1 Outline, elements taken from Chartrand 3rd Edition Proofs, Sets, Elements, Power Sets, Cardinality

Chapter 1 Outline, elements taken from Chartrand 3rd Edition Proofs, Sets, Elements, Power Sets, Cardinality

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/131389347/Transition-to-Advanced-Mathematics-Proof-Techniques-Number-Theory-Chapter-1-Outline

04/22/2013

Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111

–

Transition to Advanced MathematicsChapter 1

–

SetsIntro:A

set

is a collection of objects (customarily noted by uppercase letters, such as

)The objects that make up a set are called its

elements

(or members.) They are customarilynoted by lowercase letters such as

.If

is an element of the set

, then we write

. If

does not belong to

then we write

1.1

Describing a Set:The set

{}

is the set consisting of the numbers

1, 2

and

3

.There is only one set that contains no elements, and it is called the

empty set

, or sometimesthe null or void set. It is denoted by

Ø

.Often sets consist of those elements satisfying some condition or possessing some specifiedproperty. In such case we define such a set as

{}

or

{ }

where wemean that

S

consists of

all those elements

satisfying some condition

concerning

.Special Sets:Symbol For the set of:

Natural numbers (positive integers)

Integers (All: +,-, and 0)

Rational numbers

Irrational numbers

Real numbers

+

Positive real numbers

Complex numbers

A real number that can be expressed in the form:

, where

and

, is called a

rational number

.A real number that is not rational is called

irrational

, they cannot be expressed as the ratioof two integers. It is also known that the

real numbers with infinite nonrepeating decimalexpansions

are precisely the irrational numbers.A

complex number

is a number of the form

,

where

, can be expressed as

, or more simply as

a

.

Hence,

is a real number.

Every real number is a complexnumber

.

Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111

–

Transition to Advanced MathematicsFor a set S we write

to denote the

number of elements in S

. The number |S| is alsoreferred to as the

cardinal number

or

cardinality

of S.

A set S is

finite

if

for some

nonnegative integer n

. A set S is infinite if it is not finite.For the present, we will use the notation

only for finite sets S.1.2

Subsets:A set A is a

subset

of a set B if

every element of A also belongs to be B

. If A is a subset of Bthen we write

A

B

.Note:

and therefore,

If a set

C

is

not

a subset

of a set

D

, then we write

C

D

.In a typical discussion of sets, we are ordinarily concerned with subsets of some specifiedset

, called the

universal set

.

If we are dealing

only with integers

, the universal set is

If we are dealing

only with real numbers

, the universal set is

In some cases

may not even be a set of numbers

.Some frequently encountered subsets of

are the so-

called “

intervals

”

For

and

the open interval

is the set

{ }

For

and

, the closed interval

is the set

{ }

but

The interval

is therefore

{}

. And thus, for

,we have

. For

and

, the

half-open

or

half-closed intervals

and

are defined as expected:

{ }

and

{ }

Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111

–

Transition to Advanced MathematicsFor

, the

infinite intervals

are defined as:

{ }

{ }

{}{}

The interval

is the set

Two sets A and B are

equal

, indicated by writing

, if they have exactly the sameelements. Also every element of A is in B and every element of B is in A.

and

.

If

, then there must be some element belonging to one of A and B but not to the other.A set A is a

proper subset

of a set B if A

but

. If A is a proper subset of B then wewrite

.The set

consisting of all subsets

of a given set A is called the

power set

of A and is denotedby

If A is any

finite set

, with

elements say then

has

elements; that is,

for every finite set A.1.3

Set Operations:The

union

of two sets A and B, denoted

is the set of all elements belonging to A or B,that is,

{ }

and

The

intersection

of two sets A and B is the set of all elements belonging to both A and B. It isdenoted by

In symbols,

{ }

For every two sets A and B it follows that

. Suppose that

, then

belongs to both A and B. Since

, then

and so

.If two sets A and B have no elements in common, then

and A and B are said to be

disjoint

.

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