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Transition to Advanced Mathematics Proof Techniques Number Theory Chapter 1 Outline

Transition to Advanced Mathematics Proof Techniques Number Theory Chapter 1 Outline

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Published by Jonathan Salcedo
Chapter 1 Outline, elements taken from Chartrand 3rd Edition Proofs, Sets, Elements, Power Sets, Cardinality
Chapter 1 Outline, elements taken from Chartrand 3rd Edition Proofs, Sets, Elements, Power Sets, Cardinality

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Published by: Jonathan Salcedo on Mar 20, 2013
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04/22/2013

 
Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111
Transition to Advanced MathematicsChapter 1
SetsIntro:A
set
is a collection of objects (customarily noted by uppercase letters, such as
 
)The objects that make up a set are called its
elements
(or members.) They are customarilynoted by lowercase letters such as

.If 
is an element of the set 
 
, then we write
. If 
does not belong to
 
then we write
 
1.1
 
Describing a Set:The set 
{}
is the set consisting of the numbers
1, 2
and
3
.There is only one set that contains no elements, and it is called the
empty set
, or sometimesthe null or void set. It is denoted by
Ø
.Often sets consist of those elements satisfying some condition or possessing some specifiedproperty. In such case we define such a set as
{}
or
{ }
where wemean that 
S
consists of 
all those elements
satisfying some condition
 

concerning
.Special Sets:Symbol For the set of:
 
Natural numbers (positive integers)
 
Integers (All: +,-, and 0)
 
Rational numbers
Irrational numbers
 
Real numbers
+
 
Positive real numbers
 
Complex numbers

 A real number that can be expressed in the form:
, where
 
and
, is called a
rational number
.A real number that is not rational is called
irrational
, they cannot be expressed as the ratioof two integers. It is also known that the
real numbers with infinite nonrepeating decimalexpansions
are precisely the irrational numbers.A
complex number
is a number of the form

,
where
, can be expressed as

, or more simply as
a
.
Hence,

 
is a real number.
Every real number is a complexnumber
.
 
Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111
Transition to Advanced MathematicsFor a set S we write

to denote the
number of elements in S
. The number |S| is alsoreferred to as the
cardinal number
or
cardinality
of S.
 
 A set S is
finite
if 

for some
nonnegative integer n
. A set S is infinite if it is not finite.For the present, we will use the notation

only for finite sets S.1.2
 
Subsets:A set A is a
subset
of a set B if 
every element of A also belongs to be B
. If A is a subset of Bthen we write
A
B
.Note:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
and therefore,
 
 
 If a set 
C
is
not
a subset
of a set 
D
, then we write
C
D
.In a typical discussion of sets, we are ordinarily concerned with subsets of some specifiedset 
, called the
universal set
.

 If we are dealing
only with integers
, the universal set is

 If we are dealing
only with real numbers
, the universal set is
 In some cases
 
may not even be a set of numbers
.Some frequently encountered subsets of 
are the so-
called “
intervals
”
 For
  
and
 
the open interval

is the set 
  {       }
 For
  
and
, the closed interval

is the set 
  {      }
 
  
but 
  
The interval

is therefore
{}
. And thus, for
,we have
  
. For
  
and
, the
half-open
or
half-closed intervals
 

 and

are defined as expected:
  {      }
 and
  {      }
 
Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111
Transition to Advanced MathematicsFor
, the
infinite intervals
are defined as:
 {   }
 
 {  }
 
{}{}
 

The interval

is the set 

 Two sets A and B are
equal
, indicated by writing
 
, if they have exactly the sameelements. Also every element of A is in B and every element of B is in A.
 
and
.
 
If 
 
, then there must be some element belonging to one of A and B but not to the other.A set A is a
proper subset
of a set B if A
but 
 
. If A is a proper subset of B then wewrite
 
.The set 
consisting of all subsets
of a given set A is called the
power set
of A and is denotedby
 
 If A is any
finite set
, with
elements say then

has
elements; that is,
 
 for every finite set A.1.3
 
Set Operations:The
union
of two sets A and B, denoted
 
is the set of all elements belonging to A or B,that is,
 {  }
 
 
and 

 
The
intersection
of two sets A and B is the set of all elements belonging to both A and B. It isdenoted by
 
In symbols,
 {  }
 

 

 For every two sets A and B it follows that 
 
. Suppose that 

, then
 belongs to both A and B. Since
, then

and so
 
.If two sets A and B have no elements in common, then
 
and A and B are said to be
disjoint
.

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