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Published by Jonathan Salcedo

Chapter 2 Outline, elements inspired by Chartrand 3rd Edition

Statements, Truth Values, Logic, Open Sentences, Truth Tables, Disjunction, Conjunction, Implication, Hypothesis, Premise, Converse, Biconditional, Compound Statement, Logical Connectives, Tautology, Logical Equivalence, Commutative, Associative, Distributive, De Morgan's, Laws, Quantified Statements, Quantification, Universal, Characterization

Statements, Truth Values, Logic, Open Sentences, Truth Tables, Disjunction, Conjunction, Implication, Hypothesis, Premise, Converse, Biconditional, Compound Statement, Logical Connectives, Tautology, Logical Equivalence, Commutative, Associative, Distributive, De Morgan's, Laws, Quantified Statements, Quantification, Universal, Characterization

Chapter 2 Outline, elements inspired by Chartrand 3rd Edition

Statements, Truth Values, Logic, Open Sentences, Truth Tables, Disjunction, Conjunction, Implication, Hypothesis, Premise, Converse, Biconditional, Compound Statement, Logical Connectives, Tautology, Logical Equivalence, Commutative, Associative, Distributive, De Morgan's, Laws, Quantified Statements, Quantification, Universal, Characterization

Statements, Truth Values, Logic, Open Sentences, Truth Tables, Disjunction, Conjunction, Implication, Hypothesis, Premise, Converse, Biconditional, Compound Statement, Logical Connectives, Tautology, Logical Equivalence, Commutative, Associative, Distributive, De Morgan's, Laws, Quantified Statements, Quantification, Universal, Characterization

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Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111 – Transition to Advanced MathematicsChapter 2 – Logic2.1 StatementsA statement statement statement statement is a declarative sentence or assertion that is true or false (but not both.)Every statement has a truth valuetruth valuetruth valuetruth value, namely truetruetruetrue denoted by or falsefalsefalsefalse denoted by .An open sentenceopen sentenceopen sentenceopen sentence is a declarative sentence that contains one or more variables, eachvariable representing a value in some prescribed set, called the domaindomaindomaindomain of the variable, andwhich becomes a statement when values from their respective domains are substituted forthese variables.An open sentence that contains a variable is typically represented by(),(),().If () is an open sentence, where the domain of x is , then we say()is an openopenopenopensentence over the domainsentence over the domainsentence over the domainsentence over the domain S. Also, () is a statement for each ∈.For example, the open sentence()∶(−3)

ଶ

≤1Over the domain ℤ is a true statement when ∈ሼ2,3,4ሽand is a false statement otherwise.The possible truth values of a statement are often listed in a table called a truth tabletruth tabletruth tabletruth table.In general, a truth table involving statements

ଵ

,

ଶ

,…,

contains 2

possiblecombinations of truth valuestruth valuestruth valuestruth values for these statements and a truth table showing thesecombinations would have columns and 2

rows.2.2 The Negation of a Statement The negationnegationnegationnegation of a statement is the statement: not not not not and is denoted by ~. Although ~could always be expressed as: It is not the caseIt is not the caseIt is not the caseIt is not the case that .The negation of a true statement is always false and the negation of a false statement isalways true.2.3 The Disjunction and Conjunction of StatementsThe disjunctiondisjunctiondisjunctiondisjunction of the statements and is the statement: orororor and is denoted by ∨.The disjunction ∨ is true if at least one of and is true; otherwise, ∨is false.Therefore, ∨ is true if exactly one of and is true or if both and are true.: Although the truth of “ or " allows for both and to be true, there are instanceswhen the use of “or” does not allow that possibility. For example, for an integer , if we say

Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111 – Transition to Advanced MathematicsThe compound statement ∨(~) is true regardless of the truth value of true regardless of the truth value of true regardless of the truth value of true regardless of the truth value of . A compoundstatement is called a tautologytautologytautologytautology if it is true for all possible combinations of truth values of the component statements that comprise . Hence ∨(~) is a tautology, as is(~)∨(⇒).If a compound statement is a tautology, then its negation ~ is a contradiction.2.8 Logical EquivalenceLet and be two compound statements involving the same component statements. Thenand are called logically equivalent logically equivalent logically equivalent logically equivalent if and have the same truth values for allcombinations of truth values of their component statements. This is denoted by ≡.ℎ 2.17.ℎ

⇒ (~)∨

2.9 Some Fundamental Properties of Logical Equivalenceℎ 2.18,,, ,(1) ()∨≡∨()∧≡∧(2) ()∨(∨)≡(∨)∨()∧(∧)≡(∧)∧(3) ()∨(∧)≡(∨)∧(∨)()∧(∨)≡(∧)∨(∧)(4)

ᇱ

()~(∨)≡(~)∧(~)()~(∧)≡(~)∨(~)2.10 Quantified StatementsThere are other ways that an open sentence can be converted into a statement, namely by amethod called quantificationquantificationquantificationquantification.... Let ()be an open sentence over a domain . Adding the