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Transition to Advanced Mathematics Proof Techniques Number Theory Chapter 2 Outline

Transition to Advanced Mathematics Proof Techniques Number Theory Chapter 2 Outline

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Published by Jonathan Salcedo
Chapter 2 Outline, elements inspired by Chartrand 3rd Edition

Statements, Truth Values, Logic, Open Sentences, Truth Tables, Disjunction, Conjunction, Implication, Hypothesis, Premise, Converse, Biconditional, Compound Statement, Logical Connectives, Tautology, Logical Equivalence, Commutative, Associative, Distributive, De Morgan's, Laws, Quantified Statements, Quantification, Universal, Characterization
Chapter 2 Outline, elements inspired by Chartrand 3rd Edition

Statements, Truth Values, Logic, Open Sentences, Truth Tables, Disjunction, Conjunction, Implication, Hypothesis, Premise, Converse, Biconditional, Compound Statement, Logical Connectives, Tautology, Logical Equivalence, Commutative, Associative, Distributive, De Morgan's, Laws, Quantified Statements, Quantification, Universal, Characterization

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Published by: Jonathan Salcedo on Mar 20, 2013
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04/22/2013

 
Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111 – Transition to Advanced MathematicsChapter 2 – Logic2.1 StatementsA statement statement statement statement is a declarative sentence or assertion that is true or false (but not both.)Every statement has a truth valuetruth valuetruth valuetruth value, namely truetruetruetrue denoted by or falsefalsefalsefalse denoted by .An open sentenceopen sentenceopen sentenceopen sentence is a declarative sentence that contains one or more variables, eachvariable representing a value in some prescribed set, called the domaindomaindomaindomain of the variable, andwhich becomes a statement when values from their respective domains are substituted forthese variables.An open sentence that contains a variable is typically represented by(),(),().If () is an open sentence, where the domain of x is , then we say()is an openopenopenopensentence over the domainsentence over the domainsentence over the domainsentence over the domain S. Also, () is a statement for each .For example, the open sentence()(3)
1Over the domain is a true statement when 2,3,4and is a false statement otherwise.The possible truth values of a statement are often listed in a table called a truth tabletruth tabletruth tabletruth table.In general, a truth table involving statements
,
,,
contains 2
possiblecombinations of truth valuestruth valuestruth valuestruth values for these statements and a truth table showing thesecombinations would have columns and 2
rows.2.2 The Negation of a Statement The negationnegationnegationnegation of a statement is the statement: not not not not and is denoted by ~. Although ~could always be expressed as: It is not the caseIt is not the caseIt is not the caseIt is not the case that .The negation of a true statement is always false and the negation of a false statement isalways true.2.3 The Disjunction and Conjunction of StatementsThe disjunctiondisjunctiondisjunctiondisjunction of the statements and is the statement: orororor and is denoted by .The disjunction is true if at least one of and is true; otherwise, is false.Therefore, is true if exactly one of and is true or if both and are true.: Although the truth of or " allows for both and to be true, there are instanceswhen the use of “or” does not allow that possibility. For example, for an integer , if we say
 
Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111 – Transition to Advanced Mathematicsis even or is odd," then surely it is not possible for both is even” and is odd” to betrue. When “or” is used in this manner, it is called the exclusive orexclusive orexclusive orexclusive or.The conjunctionconjunctionconjunctionconjunction of the statements and is the statement: and is denoted by. The conjunction is true only when both and are true; otherwise, isfalse.2.4 The ImplicationFor statements and , the implicationimplicationimplicationimplication (or conditionalconditionalconditionalconditional) is the statement: If If If If , thenthenthenthen . Andis denoted by . We may also express this in words as impliesimpliesimpliesimplies . is falsefalsefalsefalse onlyonlyonlyonlywhenwhenwhenwhen is true andis true andis true andis true and is falseis falseis falseis false.2.5 More on ImplicationsIn general, the sentence in the implication is commonly referred to as thehypothesishypothesishypothesishypothesis or premisepremisepremisepremise of , while is called the conclusionconclusionconclusionconclusion of .2.6 The BiconditionalFor statements (or open sentences) and , the implication is called the converseconverseconverseconverseof .For statements (or open sentences) and , the conjunction ()() of theimplication and its converse is called the biconditionalbiconditionalbiconditionalbiconditional of and and is denoted by. This biconditional is true whenever both and are both true or both false.is often stated as:is equivalent tois equivalent tois equivalent tois equivalent toorif and only if if and only if if and only if if and only if oris a necessary and sufficient condition foris a necessary and sufficient condition foris a necessary and sufficient condition foris a necessary and sufficient condition for2.7 Tautologies and ContradictionsThe symbols ~,,,,are often referred to as logical connectiveslogical connectiveslogical connectiveslogical connectives.Generally, a compound statement compound statement compound statement compound statement is a statement composed of one or more given statements(called component statementscomponent statementscomponent statementscomponent statements in this context) and at least one logical connective, Forexample, for a given component statement , its negation ~ is a compound statement.
 
Jonathan SalcedoMATH 111 – Transition to Advanced MathematicsThe compound statement (~) is true regardless of the truth value of true regardless of the truth value of true regardless of the truth value of true regardless of the truth value of . A compoundstatement is called a tautologytautologytautologytautology if it is true for all possible combinations of truth values of the component statements that comprise . Hence (~) is a tautology, as is(~)().If a compound statement is a tautology, then its negation ~ is a contradiction.2.8 Logical EquivalenceLet and be two compound statements involving the same component statements. Thenand are called logically equivalent logically equivalent logically equivalent logically equivalent if and have the same truth values for allcombinations of truth values of their component statements. This is denoted by .2.17.
 
(~)
 
2.9 Some Fundamental Properties of Logical Equivalence2.18,,, ,(1) ()()(2) ()()()()()()(3) ()()()()()()()()(4) 
 ()~()(~)(~)()~()(~)(~)2.10 Quantified StatementsThere are other ways that an open sentence can be converted into a statement, namely by amethod called quantificationquantificationquantificationquantification.... Let ()be an open sentence over a domain . Adding the

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