The Egyptian Economy, 1952–2000
The Egyptian Economy
describes developments in the Egyptian economy and exam-ines the dynamics of economic policymaking during 1952–2000. This book ana-lyzes the structural changes that occurred and the main thematic issues that policymakers confronted, in particular those relating to investment and productiv-ity, the balance of payments, external debt management, ﬁscal policy, the ﬁnancialsector and monetary policy, the labor force and employment, and poverty. It alsodiscusses in detail the strategic and institutional issues that Egypt must address inorder to sustain rapid growth in the future. This discussion covers:•Bureaucracy •Judicial system•System of taxation•Education and training•Planning and economic management •Constraints imposed by the availability of water•Costs of economic growth on the environment.The book has been written from the point of view of a “participant–observer,” whohas provided advice on economic policymaking both to Egyptian ofﬁcials and tointernational organizations. Khalid Ikram – a former Director of the World Bank’sEgypt Department and the author of a previous book on the Egyptian economy –has interviewed many leading policymakers of the period, whose insights are dis-cussed in the text. The book beneﬁts from access to the databases of the WorldBank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Central Bank of Egypt, and drawson studies conducted by these organizations, bilateral and multilateral aid institu-tions, and Egyptian ministries and think tanks, in addition to published sources.
has worked within the Pakistan Government, World Bank, and morerecently as an international consultant for the UNCTAD, OECD, GTZ, and the Asian Development Bank. His main research interests include development strat-egy, policies, trade, and ﬁnance. He is the author of
Egypt: Economic Management in a Period of Transition
(Johns Hopkins University Press).