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Limba engleza contemporana

Limba engleza contemporana

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Published by luizlucena3
English grammar in Romanian
English grammar in Romanian

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Published by: luizlucena3 on Mar 10, 2009
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01/29/2013

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 Universitatea “Ovidius”, ConstantaFacultatea de Litere si TeologieCatedra de limba englezãINVATAMANT LA DISTANTA
LIMBA ENGLEZA CONTEMPORANA
Semestrul I, anul I
PHONETICS, PHONOLOGY, VARIETIES OFENGLISH
Conf.univ.dr. Eduard Vlad
 
2
 Phonemic symbols used in the courseLong vowels
 /i:/ in
 fee, sea, see
 /fi:, si:, si:/  / 
Y
:/ in
smart, art, far 
 /sm
Y
:t,
Y
:t, f 
Y
: /  / 
]
:/ in
cause, ought, more
 /k 
]
:z,
]
:t, m
]
:/  /u:/ in
blue, flew, moo
  /blu:, flu:, mu:/  / 
f
:/ in
sir, dirt, earn
  /s
f
:, d
f
:t,
f
:n/ 
Short vowels
 / 
 / in
tip, in, very
/t
p,
n, ‘ver
 /  /e/ in
ten, pet, pleasure
 /ten, pen, ‘ple
¬j
 /  / 
:
 / in
cat, Ann, happy
 /k 
:
t,
:
n,‘h
:
p
 /  / 
¥
 / in
up, but, young
 / 
¥
p, b
¥
t, j
¥;
 /  / 
a
 / in
on, cop, Ross
a
n, k 
a
p, r
a
s/  / 
¤
 / in
good, put, pull
 /g
¤
d, p
¤
t, p
¤
l/  / 
j
 / in
 painter, about, perhaps
 /’pe
nt
j
,
j
’baut, p
j
’haps/ 
Consonants /p/ in
 pin, supper, up
/p
wwww
n, ‘s
¥ ¥¥ ¥ 
p
jjjj
,
¥ ¥¥ ¥ 
p/  /b/ in
 bet, about, hub
 /bet,
jjjj
’baut, h
¥ ¥¥ ¥ 
b/  /t/ in
 tick, apt, attic
 /t
wwww
k,
::::
pt, ‘
::::
t
wwww
k/  /d/ in
 deed, add, addict
 /di:d,
::::
d,
::::
d
wwww
kt/  /k/ in
 can, act, talk
 / k
::::
n,
::::
kt, t
dddd
:k/  /g/ in
 game, again, log
 /ge
wwww
m,
jjjj
’gen, l
aaaa
g /f/ in
 fine, off, often
 /fa
wwww
n,
aaaa
f,
aaaa
fn/  /v/ in
vain, over, of 
 /ve
wwww
n, ‘
jjj¤¤¤
v
iiii
,
iiii
v/  /s/ in
 seen, asset, cross
 /si:n, ‘
::::
set, kr
aaaa
s/  /z/ in
 zeal, easy, buzz
 /zi:l, ‘i:z
wwww
, b
¥ ¥¥ ¥ 
z/  / 
¢¢¢¢
 / in
 three, Kathy, path
 / 
¢¢¢¢
ri:, ‘k
::::
 
¢¢¢¢wwww
, p
````
:
¢¢¢¢
 /  / ð/ in
 they, other, breathe
 / ðe
wwww
, ‘
¥ ¥¥ ¥ 
ð
jjjj
, bri:ð/  / 
 M  M M 
 / in
 ship, usher, finish
 / 
 M  M Mwwww
p, ‘
¥ ¥¥ ¥M  M Mjjjj
, ‘f 
wwww
n
wwwwM  M M 
 /  / 
WWWW
 / in
 pleasure, usually
 /’ple
WWWWjjjj
, ‘ju
WWWW
u
jjjj
l
wwww
 /  /h/ in
 house, hen
 /haus, hen/  /t
 M  M M 
 / in
 chin, each, itchy
 / t
 M  M Mwwww
n, i:t
 M  M M 
, ‘
wwww
t
 M  M Mwwww
 /  /d
WWWW
 / in
 gin, urge
 / d
WWWWwwww
n,
ŸŸŸŸ
: d
WWWW
 / 
 
4
 /m/ in
 mine, hymn
 /ma
wwww
n, h
wwww
m/  /n/ in
 name, sunny, one
 /ne
wwww
m, ‘s
¥ ¥¥ ¥ 
n
wwww
, w
¥ ¥¥ ¥ 
n/  / 
llll
 / in
 sing, think
 /si
llll
,
¢¢¢¢wwwwllll
k/  /l/ in
lane, alone, eel 
 /le
wwww
n,
jjjj
l
jjj¤¤¤
n, i:l/  /r/ in
 read, red, arrive
 /ri:d, red,
jjjj
’ra
wwww
v/  /w/ in
we, suave, persuade
 /wi:, sw
````
:v, p
jjjj
’swe
wwww
d/  /j/ in
 yes, queue, issue
 /jes, kju:, ‘
wwww
sju:/ Slants / / are used for
 phonemic transcription
, while brackets [ ] are used for
 phonetic
transcription.PHONETICS, PHONOLOGY AND OTHER AREAS OF LANGUAGEINVESTIGATION
Communication by means of sound signals is not the exclusive province of humanbeings. All creatures are said to communicate with each other to attract each other’sattention, to warn of danger, to give information about the availability of food, directions,etc. Nevertheless, we humans have managed to pattern the sound continuum we canproduce to a remarkable extent and to come up with an unrivalled, extremely efficient andarticulate system of communication.
Phonetics and phonology
are the branches of linguistic investigation that concernthemselves with the description and functioning of the speech sounds of languages. One hasto distinguish between the practically unlimited number of different sounds a human beingcan produce and the sounds that have acquired a functional status in a particular language.The latter are called
phonemes.
 Although the boundary between phonetics and phonology is hard to draw, the twomay be said to operate at various, distinct levels.
Phonetics
has to do with the concrete characteristics of the phonemes in terms of their articulation, transmission and perception. Accordingly it is further subdivided into
articulatory, acoustic and auditory phonetics.Articulatory phonetics
deals with the way in which speech sounds are produced.Sounds are usually classified according to the position of the lips, tongue, soft palate,according to whether the air flow coming from the lungs is obstructed or not, whether thevocal cords vibrate or not, etc.

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