m/ /n/ in
name, sunny, one
¥ ¥¥ ¥
¥ ¥¥ ¥
k/ /l/ in
lane, alone, eel
n, i:l/ /r/ in
read, red, arrive
v/ /w/ in
we, suave, persuade
d/ /j/ in
yes, queue, issue
/jes, kju:, ‘
sju:/ Slants / / are used for
, while brackets [ ] are used for
transcription.PHONETICS, PHONOLOGY AND OTHER AREAS OF LANGUAGEINVESTIGATION
Communication by means of sound signals is not the exclusive province of humanbeings. All creatures are said to communicate with each other to attract each other’sattention, to warn of danger, to give information about the availability of food, directions,etc. Nevertheless, we humans have managed to pattern the sound continuum we canproduce to a remarkable extent and to come up with an unrivalled, extremely efficient andarticulate system of communication.
Phonetics and phonology
are the branches of linguistic investigation that concernthemselves with the description and functioning of the speech sounds of languages. One hasto distinguish between the practically unlimited number of different sounds a human beingcan produce and the sounds that have acquired a functional status in a particular language.The latter are called
Although the boundary between phonetics and phonology is hard to draw, the twomay be said to operate at various, distinct levels.
has to do with the concrete characteristics of the phonemes in terms of their articulation, transmission and perception. Accordingly it is further subdivided into
articulatory, acoustic and auditory phonetics.Articulatory phonetics
deals with the way in which speech sounds are produced.Sounds are usually classified according to the position of the lips, tongue, soft palate,according to whether the air flow coming from the lungs is obstructed or not, whether thevocal cords vibrate or not, etc.