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Windsor: Amicus Brief of GLMA

Windsor: Amicus Brief of GLMA

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Published by Equality Case Files
United States v. Windsor: Amicus brief of GLMA:
Health Professionals Advancing LGBT Equality (Gay and Lesbian Medical Association) Concerning the Immutability of Sexual Orientation in support of Plaintiff
United States v. Windsor: Amicus brief of GLMA:
Health Professionals Advancing LGBT Equality (Gay and Lesbian Medical Association) Concerning the Immutability of Sexual Orientation in support of Plaintiff

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categoriesBusiness/Law
Published by: Equality Case Files on Mar 20, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/20/2013

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No. 12-307
================================================================
In The
Supreme Court of the United States
---------------------------------
---------------------------------UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
 Petitioner,
v.EDITH SCHLAIN WINDSOR, andBIPARTISAN LEGAL ADVISORY GROUPOF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
 Respondents.
---------------------------------
---------------------------------
On Writ Of Certiorari To TheUnited States Court Of AppealsFor The Second Circuit
---------------------------------
---------------------------------
BRIEF OF
 AMICUS CURIAE
GLMA:HEALTH PROFESSIONALS ADVANCINGLGBT EQUALITY (GAY AND LESBIANMEDICAL ASSOCIATION) CONCERNINGTHE IMMUTABILITY OF SEXUAL ORIENTATIONIN SUPPORT OF AFFIRMANCE ON THE MERITS
---------------------------------
---------------------------------H
ECTOR
 ARGAS
,Executive DirectorGLMA: H
EALTH
 P
ROFESSIONALS
DVANCING
 LGBT E
QUALITY 
 1326 18th Street, NW,Suite 22Washington, DC 20036(202) 600-8037February 26, 2013N
ICHOLAS
M.O’D
ONNELL
Counsel of Record
 S
ULLIVAN
& W
ORCESTER
LLPOne Post Office SquareBoston, MA 02109(617) 338-2800nodonnell@sandw.com
Counsel for
 
 Amicus CuriaeGLMA: Health ProfessionalsAdvancing LGBT Equality
================================================================
COCKLE LAW BRIEF PRINTING CO. (800) 225-6964OR CALL COLLECT (402) 342-2831
 
iTABLE OF CONTENTSPageSTATEMENT OF INTEREST OF
 AMICUS CU- RIAE
GLMA:
 
HEALTH PROFESSIONALS ADVANCING LGBT EQUALITY ....................... 1INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF THE AR-GUMENT ............................................................ 3 ARGUMENT ........................................................... 4I. IMMUTABILITY IS NOT A REQUIREDELEMENT TO APPLY HEIGHTENEDSCRUTINY .................................................. 4II. THE COURT HAS NOT VIEWED SEX-UAL ORIENTATION AS BEHAVIORAL .... 8III. SEXUAL ORIENTATION IS AN INNATEHUMAN CHARACTERISTIC ..................... 12 A. Twin Studies Confirm the BiologicalComponent of Sexual Orientation ........ 13B. Pedigree Studies Have Found thatSexual Orientation is Heritable inFamilies ................................................. 16C. Fraternal Birth Order Effect Confirms Bi-ological Origin of Sexual Orientation ..... 17D. Pre-Natal Hormone Levels Affect Sex-ual Orientation ...................................... 191. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia ..... 212. Xenoandrogens ................................. 23E. Analysis of Male Genetic Material In-dicates that Sexual Orientation is Her-itable ...................................................... 24
 
iiTABLE OF CONTENTS – ContinuedPageF. Brain Studies Show the Biologic Rootsof Sexual Orientation ............................ 25G. The Overwhelming Majority of Hu-mans Self-Describe Their Sexual Ori-entation as Innate ................................. 26IV. MISGUIDED EFFORTS TO CHANGESEXUAL ORIENTATION PROVE THEINNATENESS OF THE TRAIT .................. 27 V. THE STUDIES CITED BY SUPPORTERSOF DOMA FAIL TO DEMONSTRATETHAT SEXUAL ORIENTATION IS BE-HAVIORAL ................................................... 32 A. Petitioners’ Repeated Reliance on theWork of Lisa Diamond Actually Dem-onstrates that Sexual Orientation isInnate, Not the Reverse ........................ 32B. Petitioners’ Other Studies Do Not Sup-port the Conclusion that Sexual Orien-tation is Behavioral ............................... 38CONCLUSION ....................................................... 39

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