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flow of water by notch and weirs

flow of water by notch and weirs

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Published by Ct Fatimah Ngagiman
measurement of flow of water with the different notch and weirs
measurement of flow of water with the different notch and weirs

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Published by: Ct Fatimah Ngagiman on Mar 20, 2013
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06/13/2014

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FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
October 16, 2012
ABSTRACT:
This experiment is about the measurement of flow of water by notches and weirs whichhas been conducted on 6
th
October 2012 at Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, UiTM Shah Alam.Basically, the experiment that had conducted is to discuss about the flow characteristics of water over the different notches. The notches that used to examine the flow are rectangular andtriangular (V) notches. Besides, the experiment here is also to define the discharge coefficient ofthe fluid flow. In order to achieve the objectives, all the data are recorded while conducting theexperiment. The manipulated variables from this experiment are the height of water level andalso the types of notches. Thus, for the easier calculation, the amount of volume is set at theconstant level which is 3 litres.Based on the data that had been recorded, we construct a graph to analyzing thecharacteristics of the flow. From the rectangular graphs, we can observed that the dischargecoefficient decrease slowly and it almost have a constant value for the rest. Different with therectangular notch, the discharge coefficient for the triangular notch is smoothly but the value stillhigher than the rectangular notch.Thus, we can conclude that the triangular notch showed the higher discharge coefficientrather than the rectangular notch.
INTRODUCTION:
Nowadays, if we can see a structure that used to dam up a stream or river, over which thewater flows is known as weir and also can used notch. But the different between the weir and notchis the structure. A weir is an opening in the sidewall of the tank at the top. Besides, the notch andweir almost the same except the former is a small structure and has sharp edges. A weir is generallyan overflow structure, with a broad crest, built across an open channel. The top of weir wall overwhich the liquid flows is known as the sill or crest. While the head under which the weir isdischarging is measured from the crest to the free surface. Basically, a weir and notch is used formeasuring the flow of liquids.For this experiment, the rectangular weir and triangular weirs are been used. Both of theseweirs are often used in water supply, wastewater and also sewage systems. They consist of a sharpedged plate with a rectangular, triangular or v-notch profile for the water flow. In dam spillways, thebroad-crested weirs can be observed where the broad edge is beneath the water surface across the
 
FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
October 16, 2012
entire stream. Flow measurement installations with broad-crested weirs will meet accuracyrequirement only if they are calibrated.
OBJECTIVES:
1.
 
To observe the flow characteristics over a rectangular and triangular (Vee) notches.2.
 
To determine the discharge coefficient of the fluid flow.
THEORY:
With the different types of notch, then the method of calculating the discharge coefficients of thefluids flow is also different. There are some theories that will discussing about the reasoning of twodifferent notches which are:
1)
 
RECTANGULAR NOTCH
A rectangular notch is a thin square edged weir plate installed in a weir channel as shown infigure 1 below.
Figure 1 Rectangular notchBased on the figure above, consider that the flow in an element of height H at a depth, hbelow the surface. Then, assume that the fluid flow everywhere normal to the plane of the weir andthat the free surface remains horizontal up to the plane of the weir.When the flow through the notch is not parallel then it will be not normal to the plane of theweir. If the free surface is not horizontal the result for the viscosity and surface tension will have aneffect. There will be a considerable change in the shape of the nappe as it passes through the notch
 
FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
October 16, 2012
with curvature of the stream line in both vertical and horizontal plane. In particular, the width of thenappe is reduced by the contraction at each end.Figure 2 Shape of the nappeThe formula for the discharge coefficient of rectangular is:
Q
t
= C
d
 
  
 
Where;Qt = volume flow rate (m/s)H = height above notch base (m)B = width of rectangular notch (0.03m)Cd = the discharge coefficient which has to be determined by the experimentThe discharge from the rectangular notch will be considerably less, approximately 60% of thetheoretical analysis due to these curvature effects. A coefficient of discharge, Cd is thereforeintroduced so that :
 
Cd
=
 
 
 
However, Cd is not a true constant tending towards a constant only for large heads and a lowvelocity of approach in the weir channel.

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