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state space analysis
state space analysis

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03/21/2013

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Chapter 1State-space methods
1.1 State-space representations
1.1.1 Example of a state-space model
State-space models arise naturally in the modeling of physical systems. For example, a per-manent magnet brush DC motor is described by the equations
Ldidt
=
v
Ri
Kωdt
=
Ki
(1.1)where
i
(
t
) is the current in the motor (in
A
),
v
(
t
) is the voltage applied to the motor (in
),and
ω
(
t
) is the speed of the motor (in
). For simplicity, it is assumed that there is noload or friction torque. The parameters are
R
, the resistance of the armature winding (in Ω),
L
, the inductance of the armature winding (in
),
, the back-emf constant (in
V.s
), and
, the inertia of the motor (in
kg.m
2
). The back-emf constant is also the torque constant (in
Nm/A
).The two diﬀerential equations may be written as
dx
1
dt
=
RLx
1
Lx
2
+1
Ludx
2
dt
=
x
1
(1.2)where
x
1
=
i
,
x
2
=
ω
, and
u
=
v
. In matrix form,
ddt
x
1
x
2
=
R/L
K/LK/J
0
x
1
x
2
+
1
/L
0
u
(1.3)One also uses the notation ˙
x
for
dx/dt
. Typically, the measured outputs of the system are thecurrent
i
and the speed
ω
, but in so-called
sensorless
methods of control, only the current is1

measured. Then, the output can be written as
y
=
1 0
x
1
x
2
(1.4)where
y
=
i
. Equations (1.3) and (1.4) constitute a state-space model for the motor.
1.1.2 General form of a state-space model
In general, a state-space representation has the form˙
x
=
Ax
+
=
Cx
+
Du
(1.5)where:
x
is a column vector of dimension
n
, called the
state vector
,
u
is a scalar signal, and the input of the system,
y
is a scalar signal, and the output of the system,
A
is an
n
×
n
matrix,
B
is a column vector of dimension
n
,
is a row vector of dimension
nD
is a scalar.The dimensions of all the elements and of the products are shown in Fig. 1.1.
xAn
×
1n
×
n1
×
1n
×
1n
×
1x
=+
uB
.
1
×
n1
×
1n
×
1
=+
1
×
11
×
1yCxDu
Figure 1.1: Matrix products in the state-space model

It is also possible to consider systems with multiple inputs and multiple outputs, in whichcase
u
and
y
become vectors, and
B
,
, and
D
become matrices. Many state-space resultsextend trivially from single-input single-output to multiple-input multiple-output systems, butsome require signiﬁcant adjustments. Only single-input single-output systems will be consid-ered here.
1.1.3 State-space analysis
Some simple yet general results can be obtained by applying the Laplace transform to thestate-space model. The equations for the state-space model are˙
x
=
Ax
+
=
Cx
+
Du
(1.6)so that, in the Laplace domain
sX
(
s
)
x
(0) =
AX
(
s
) +
BU
(
s
)
(
s
) =
C
(
s
) +
DU
(
s
) (1.7)where
x
(0) is the initial condition of the state vector (
x
(
t
) at
t
= 0), and
(
s
),
(
s
), and
(
s
)are the Laplace transforms of
x
(
t
),
u
(
t
), and
y
(
t
), respectively. The ﬁrst (vector) equation of (1.7) gives
sX
(
s
)
AX
(
s
) = (
sI
A
)
(
s
) =
x
(0) +
BU
(
s
) (1.8)where
is the identity matrix with dimension
n
×
n
. Therefore, the transform of the output is
(
s
) =
(
sI
A
)
1
x
(0)
  
Response to initial conditions+
(
sI
A
)
1
B
+
D
(
s
)
  
Response to input(1.9)The dimensions of the terms in the expression are, in the order in which they appear1
×
1 = (1
×
n
)
×
(
n
×
n
)
×
(
n
×
1) + ((1
×
n
)
×
(
n
×
n
)
×
(
n
×
1) + (1
×
1))
×
(1
×
1)(1.10)As identiﬁed above, the output
(
s
) obtained from the state-space model has two terms:a term due to initial conditions, and a term due to the input. The transfer function relatesthe input of the system to its output and is found to be
(
s
) =
(
sI
A
)
1
B
+
D
(1.11)Although this transfer function may be complicated to compute, the poles are determined bythe common denominator of the matrix (
sI
A
)
1
, which is det(
sI
A
). Therefore, the polesare given by the roots of det(
sI
A
) = 0, which are the eigenvalues of the matrix
A
. Theeigenvalues may be found easily, even for large matrices, using a mathematical package.