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MC0087 Assignment Spring 2013 solved

MC0087 Assignment Spring 2013 solved

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Published by Naved Azmi
MC0087 Assignment Spring 2013 solved (answers)

MC0087 Assignment Spring 2013 solved (answers)


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Published by: Naved Azmi on Mar 21, 2013
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MC0087 Page 1
MC0087- Internetworking with TCP/IP
(Book ID: B1008)Q
1. What is fragmentation? Explain its significance.
: Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU):- MTU is the maximum frame size of physical network.During propagation of IP datagram, it can pass through different physical networks.MTUlimits the length of a datagram that can be placed in one physical frame. IP implements aprocess to fragment datagrams exceeding the MTU. The process creates a set of datagramswithin the maximum size. The receiving host reassembles the original datagram. IP requiresthat each link support a minimum MTU of 68 octets. This is the sum of the maximum IP headerlength (60 octets) and the minimum possible length of data in a non-final fragment (8 octets). Ifany network provides a lower value than this, fragmentation and reassembly must beimplemented in the network interface layer. This must be transparent to IP. IP implementationsare not required to handle unfragmented datagrams larger than 576 bytes. In practice, mostimplementations will accommodate larger values.An unfragmented datagram has an all-zero fragmentation information field. That is, the morefragments flag bit is zero and the fragment offset is zero. The following steps fragment thedatagram:1. The DF flag bit is checked to see if fragmentation is allowed. If the bit is set, the datagram willbe discarded and an ICMP error returned to the originator.2. Based on the MTU value, the data field is split into two or more parts. All newly created dataportions must have a length that is a multiple of 8 octets, with the exception of the last dataportion.3. Each data portion is placed in an IP datagram. The headers of these datagrams are minormodifications of the original:The more fragments flag bit is set in all fragments except the last.The fragment offset field in each is set to the location this data portion occupied in the originaldatagram, relative to the beginning of the original unfragmented datagram. The offset ismeasured in 8-octet units.If options were included in the original datagram, the high order bit of the option type bytedetermines if this information is copied to all fragment datagrams or only the first datagram. Forexample, source route options are copied in all fragments. – The header length field of the new datagram is set. – The total length field of the new datagram is set. – The header checksum field is re-calculated.
MC0087 Page 2
4. Each of these fragmented datagrams is now forwarded as a normal IP datagram. IP handleseach fragment independently. The fragments can traverse different routers to the intendeddestination. They can be subject to further fragmentation if they pass through networksspecifying a smaller MTU. At the destination host, the data is reassembled into the originaldatagram. The identification field set by the sending host is used together with the source anddestination IP addresses in the datagram. Fragmentation does not alter this field. In order toreassemble the fragments, the receiving host allocates a storage buffer when the first fragmentarrives. The host also starts a timer. When subsequent fragments of the datagram arrive, thedata is copied into the buffer storage at the location indicated by the fragment offset field. Whenall fragments have arrived, the complete original unfragmented datagram is restored.Processing continues as for unfragmented datagrams. If the timer is exceeded and fragmentsremain outstanding, the datagram is discarded. The initial value of this timer is called the IPdatagram time to live (TTL) value. It is implementation-dependent. Some implementations allowit to be configured. The netstat command can be used on some IP hosts to list the details offragmentation
. Briefly discuss the functions of transport layer
: Functions of transport layers are:-- Accepts data from session layer breaks it into packets and delivers these packets tothenetwork layer.- Guarantee successful arrival of data at thedestination device.- Provide end-to-end dialog that is the transport layer at the source devicedirectlycommunicates with transport layer at destination device. Message headers andcontrol messages are usedfor this purpose.- Separates the upper layers from the low level details of data transmission andmakessure an efficient delivery. OSI model provides connection-oriented service attransport layer. Responsible for the determination of the type of service that is to beprovided to the upper layer.Normally it transmits packets in the same order in which theyare sent however it can also facilitate thetransmission of isolated messages. There is nosurety that these isolated messages are delivered to thedestination devices in case ofbroadcast networks and they will be in the same order as were sent from thesource. Ifthe network layer do not provide adequate services for the data transmission.- Data loss due to poornetwork management is handled by using transport layer.- Examine packets that are lost ordamaged along the way.
. What is CIDR? ExplainAns:CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing, sometimes known assuper netting) is a waytoallocate and specify the Internet addresses used in inter-domain routing more flexibly thanwiththe original system of Internet Protocol (IP) address classes. As a result, the number ofavailableInternet addresses has been greatly increased. CIDR is now the routing system usedby virtuallyall gateway hosts on the Internet's backbone network. The Internet's regulatingauthorities nowexpect every Internet service provider (ISP) to use it for routing.The originalInternet Protocol defines IP addresses in four major classes of address structure,Classes Athrough D. Each of these classes allocates one portion of the 32-bit Internet addressformat to anetwork address and the remaining portion to the specific host machines within thenetworkspecified by the address. One of the most commonly used classes is (or was) Class B,whichallocates space for up to 65,533 host addresses. A company who needed more than 254hostmachines but far fewer than the 65,533 host addresses possible would essentially be"wasting"
MC0087 Page 3
most of the block of addresses allocated. For this reason, the Internet was, until thearrival ofCIDR, running out of address space much more quickly than necessary. CIDReffectively solvedthe problem by providing a new and more flexible way to specify network addresses in routers.(With a new version of the Internet Protocol - IPv6 - a 128-bit address ispossible, greatlyexpanding the number of possible addresses on the Internet. However, it will besome timebefore IPv6 is in widespread use.)Using CIDR, each IP address has anetwork prefixthatidentifies either an aggregation of network gateways or an individual gateway. The length of thenetwork prefix is also specified as part of the IP address and varies depending on the number ofbits that are needed (rather than anyarbitrary class assignment structure). A destination IPaddress or route that describes manypossible destinations has a shorter prefix and is said to beless specific. A longer prefix describesa destination gateway more specifically. Routers arerequired to use the most specific or longestnetwork prefix in the routing table when forwardingpackets.A CIDR network address looks like this: "" is the network address itself and the "18" says that the first 18 bits arethenetwork part of the address, leaving the last 14 bits for specific host addresses. CIDR letsonerouting table entry represent an aggregation of networks that exist in the forward path thatdon'tneed to be specified on that particular gateway, much as the public telephone system usesareacodes to channel calls toward a certain part of the network. This aggregation of networks inasingle address is sometimes referred to as asupernet.CIDR is supported by the Border Gateway Protocol, the prevailing exterior(interdomain)gateway protocol. (The older exterior or interdomain gateway protocols, ExteriorGatewayProtocol and Routing Information Protocol, do not support CIDR.) CIDR is alsosupported by theOSPF interior or intradomain gateway protocol.Block of subnetted into 32 subnets:a) Given block /24 have 256 addresses (0-255). Divide 256 by 32 to determine that eachsubnetwill have 8 addresses. Using binary, determine the net mask that will achieve a total of8addresses in each network. Since 0 is the first value in a range of 8 addresses, we wantzerothrough 7 or (000-111). This confirms that only 3 bits are required to represent theaddresses ineach of the 32 subnets.(xxxxxyyy - xxxxxyyy) illustrates the binary range for the addresses within each of the32subnets. The "xxxxx" represents the additional 5 bits that will be used to define the networkportion of the IP address. The "yyy" portion illustrates the host portion of the IP address.This means that the resulting netmask is /24 + /5 = /29 or = The subnet mask above defines that 3 bits are used to define the host portion of the IPaddress.binary 111 = decimal 7 (considering range of 0-7, shows 8 addresses per subnet)c)xxxxxyyy - represents the bits used to define the network and host portion of the IP address.00000yyy = first subnet in range00001yyy = second subnet in range00010yyy = third subnet in range00011yyy = fourth subnet in range

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