MC0087 Page 2
4. Each of these fragmented datagrams is now forwarded as a normal IP datagram. IP handleseach fragment independently. The fragments can traverse different routers to the intendeddestination. They can be subject to further fragmentation if they pass through networksspecifying a smaller MTU. At the destination host, the data is reassembled into the originaldatagram. The identification field set by the sending host is used together with the source anddestination IP addresses in the datagram. Fragmentation does not alter this field. In order toreassemble the fragments, the receiving host allocates a storage buffer when the first fragmentarrives. The host also starts a timer. When subsequent fragments of the datagram arrive, thedata is copied into the buffer storage at the location indicated by the fragment offset field. Whenall fragments have arrived, the complete original unfragmented datagram is restored.Processing continues as for unfragmented datagrams. If the timer is exceeded and fragmentsremain outstanding, the datagram is discarded. The initial value of this timer is called the IPdatagram time to live (TTL) value. It is implementation-dependent. Some implementations allowit to be configured. The netstat command can be used on some IP hosts to list the details offragmentation
. Briefly discuss the functions of transport layer
: Functions of transport layers are:-- Accepts data from session layer breaks it into packets and delivers these packets tothenetwork layer.- Guarantee successful arrival of data at thedestination device.- Provide end-to-end dialog that is the transport layer at the source devicedirectlycommunicates with transport layer at destination device. Message headers andcontrol messages are usedfor this purpose.- Separates the upper layers from the low level details of data transmission andmakessure an efficient delivery. OSI model provides connection-oriented service attransport layer. Responsible for the determination of the type of service that is to beprovided to the upper layer.Normally it transmits packets in the same order in which theyare sent however it can also facilitate thetransmission of isolated messages. There is nosurety that these isolated messages are delivered to thedestination devices in case ofbroadcast networks and they will be in the same order as were sent from thesource. Ifthe network layer do not provide adequate services for the data transmission.- Data loss due to poornetwork management is handled by using transport layer.- Examine packets that are lost ordamaged along the way.
. What is CIDR? ExplainAns:CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing, sometimes known assuper netting) is a waytoallocate and specify the Internet addresses used in inter-domain routing more flexibly thanwiththe original system of Internet Protocol (IP) address classes. As a result, the number ofavailableInternet addresses has been greatly increased. CIDR is now the routing system usedby virtuallyall gateway hosts on the Internet's backbone network. The Internet's regulatingauthorities nowexpect every Internet service provider (ISP) to use it for routing.The originalInternet Protocol defines IP addresses in four major classes of address structure,Classes Athrough D. Each of these classes allocates one portion of the 32-bit Internet addressformat to anetwork address and the remaining portion to the specific host machines within thenetworkspecified by the address. One of the most commonly used classes is (or was) Class B,whichallocates space for up to 65,533 host addresses. A company who needed more than 254hostmachines but far fewer than the 65,533 host addresses possible would essentially be"wasting"