could be considered as a phenomena that could decrease theamount of traffic. For freight transport the dip can be seenfrom figure 1. The economic crisis really has affected thetransportation of goods in EU27. The purchase of new carsshowed some drop but in general, on the long term, the car fleet in EU27 is expected to grow .In spite of a temporary lapse, due to the financial crisis, itmight be expected that the car fleet and the mileage isgrowing next decades. This because the noise emitted byindividual vehicles seems not go down. Recently theEuropean parliament voted in favour of a weak proposal onmotor vehicle noise  which implies hardly any reduction.This proposal should be approved by the European Councilas well but when it comes to legislation, no decline of noisemay be expected.
Dilemmas and solutions
European cities are confronted with some difficulties. Thenoise burden in cities may be expected to grow. Reasons aredescribed above. Local measures do have limited effect,especially in the inner city. Most effective measure that can be applied is quiet road surface. Noise emission from carswill not decrease probably. Source approach seems to befailed. Because end of pipe measures do not result insufficient effects other measures are needed which are far more drastically. The announcement of the EuropeanCommission in  regarding the action on curbing 50% of conventional fuelled vehicles by 2030 and 100% by 2050from urban areas could offer the solution. This means thatonly electric or hybrid motorised vehicles are allowed toenter the city. Noise from ring ways could be mitigated byspeed reduction and noise barriers in combination with quietroad surfaces when and where needed. In the time being (37years) governments and society must work along variousstrands. A number of effective noise measures that can beimplemented in the field of urban planning or re-planningare:a.
Improvement of public transport by making it morecomfortable and accessible. Interconnections should be enhanced and guaranteed. Citizens should have a public transport (tram, subway, bus) stop within 5
or bike trip from their homes.Inbound travellers, from outside the city, should
dispose over parking places at cities’
boundaries(platforms) from where the trip can be continued bymeans of public transport. Public Transport stopsand station should be more comfortable, offeringshelter, shadow or warmth and some goods such ascoffee and news papers. Moreover, it should givetravel information. b.
Parking fees and parking places in cities, especiallythe inner city should be scarce and expensive;discouraging car use and -driving. An alternativethat could be considered is to give free access and parking to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.c.
In order to stimulate and attract more electric andhybrid cars municipalities could install charging poles near parking places which are for free or set parking places only destined for e-vehicles.d.
When extending the cities with new districts theissues mentioned under a and b should be taken intoaccount. Building car free or at least car restrictedneighbourhoods.e.
The same applies for districts that are under urbanrenewal. When renewing these districts it isimportant to improve public transport, to providecitizens with sufficient facilities like shops, schools,et cetera.f.
Simultaneously people should work on (re-)socialisation regarding car-use. By means of education in families, social networks and schoolsespecially youngsters can be affected to chose for public transport or other modes such as walking and biking. From  it is known that youngsters are lesscar addicted than adults and from  can be learntthat youngsters that grew up in car-free or not car-addicted families are more in favour of publictransport trips.g.
When applying quiet road surfaces in urban areas itshould be combined with lower speeds (maximum40 km/hr) in order to avoid dominating tires noise.h.
Pedestrian zones could be set in city centres whichcould be in force during twenty four hours or justduring the sensitive periods of the day.i.
Near sensitive buildings such as schools, nursinghomes, hospitals, et cetera and sensitive areas suchas designated quiet urban areas low speeds roads or even car-free roads could be set by themunicipality. An alternative could be that thoseroads are only allowed for low-noise vehicles likeelectric and hybrid cars. j.
By designating shared spaces in urban areas car drivers will be more carefully and attentive whichleads to lower and constant speeds. This sharedspaces could be seen as priority areas for morevulnerable road-users like pedestrian and bikers.k.
In order to avoid noisy and dirty public transportthe competent authorities should demand for publictransport that is clean, energy friendly and quietmeaning electric or hybrid fuelled public transportfor use in urban areas.l.
The same should apply for service vehicles likedust (garbage) carts, cleaning vehicles, et cetera.m.
Municipalities could consider to implement the plans proposed by the European Commissionearlier and not to wait until 2030 or 2050 but to usea stricter time frame. E.g. 2025 and 2035.n.
Introducing clean, carbon free and noiseless citylogistics which is already in place in manyEuropean cities for good deliveries at night.