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Table Of Contents

1.3 FIRE PRECAUTIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
2.3 ASSESSMENT MODELS
2.3.1 Assessment method – level 1
2.3.2 Assessment method – level 2
2.3.3 Assessment method – level 3
2.3.4 Practical considerations
2.4 APPLICABILITY OF ASSESSMENT LEVELS
2.5 INTERACTION BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MEASURES
3.2 DRAWBACKS TO THE FIRE TEST
3.2.1 Expense
3.2.2 Specimen limitations
3.2.3 Effect of restraint or continuity
3.2.4 Confidentiality of results
3.2.5 Loading
3.2.6 Failure modes
3.2.7 Reproducibility
3.3 PRESCRIPTIVE DETERMINATION OF FIRE RESISTANCE
3.3.1 Concrete
3.3.2 Structural steelwork
3.3.3 Masonry
3.3.4 Timber
4.1 DEVELOPMENT OF COMPARTMENT FIRES
4.1.1 Pre-flashover period
4.1.2 Post-flashover period
4.1.3 Decay phase
4.2 FACTORS AFFECTING THE GROWTH PHASE
4.3 CALCULATION OF COMPARTMENT TEMPERATURE–TIME RESPONSES
4.3.1 Basic formulation
4.3.1.1 Rate of heat release (˙hC)
4.3.1.3 Rate of heat loss due to convection (˙hL)
4.3.2.1 Multiple vertical openings
4.3.2.2 Horizontal openings
4.3.2.3 Compartment construction
4.3.3 Calculation of fire load
4.3.3.1 Full calculation
4.3.3.2 Generic data
4.3.4 Parametric equation approach
4.3.4.1 Formulation due to Lie (1974)
4.3.4.2 EN 1991-1-2 approach
4.5.2.1 Temperature base
4.5.2.2 Normalized heat load base
4.6.2 5MW design fire
5.1 THERMAL DATA
5.1.1 Steel
5.1.1.1 Density
5.1.1.2 Specific heat
5.1.1.3 Thermal conductivity
5.1.1.4 Thermal diffusivity
5.1.2 Concrete
5.1.2.1 Density
5.1.2.2 Specific heat
5.1.2.3 Thermal conductivity
5.1.2.4 Thermal diffusivity
5.1.3 Masonry
5.1.3.1 Density
5.1.3.2 Specific heat
5.1.3.3 Thermal conductivity
5.1.4 Timber
5.1.5 Aluminium
5.1.5.1 Density
5.1.5.2 Specific heat
5.1.5.3 Thermal conductivity
5.2 MATERIALS DATA
5.2.1 Testing régimes
5.2.2 Steel
5.2.2.1 Strength characteristics
5.2.2.2 Unrestrained thermal expansion
5.2.2.3 Isothermal creep
5.2.2.4 Anisothermal creep data
5.2.3 Concrete
5.2.3.1 Stress–strain data
5.2.3.2 Creep
5.2.3.3 Free thermal expansion
5.2.3.4 Transient tests
5.2.3.6 Bond strength
5.2.3.8 Fibre concretes
5.2.3.9 Multi-axial behaviour
5.2.4 Timber
5.2.4.1 Rate of charring
5.3.1.1 Elastic strain
5.3.1.2 Creep
5.3.1.3 Design curves
5.3.2 Concrete
5.3.2.1 Anderberg and Thelandersson
5.3.2.2 Diederichs
5.3.2.3 Khoury and Terro
5.3.2.4 Khennane and Baker
5.3.2.5 Schneider
5.3.2.6 Li and Purkiss
5.3.3 Design code provisions for stress–strain behaviour
6.1 THERMAL ANALYSIS
6.1.1 Governing equation and boundary conditions
6.1.2 Finite element solution of the heat transfer problem
6.2 CALCULATION OF TEMPERATURE IN TIMBER ELEMENT
6.3 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
6.4 EXAMPLES
7.1 CALCULATION OF TEMPERATURES
7.1.1 Graphical data
7.1.1.2 FIP/CEB report (1978)
7.1.1.3 EN 1992-1-2
7.1.2 Empirical methods
7.1.2.1 Wickström’s method
7.1.2.2 Hertz’s method
7.1.3 Values of thermal diffusivity
7.1.4 Position of the 500◦C isotherm
7.2 SIMPLE CALCULATION METHODS
7.2.1 Calculation of load effects
7.2.1.1 Direct calculation
7.2.1.2 Indirect calculation
7.2.2 Materials’ partial safety factors
7.2.3 Methods of determining section capacity
7.2.3.1 Reduced section method (500◦C isotherm)
7.2.3.2 Method of slices (zone method)
7.3 COLUMNS
7.4 COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE METHODS OF CALCULATION
7.5 DESIGN AND DETAILING CONSIDERATIONS
7.5.1 Shear
7.5.2 Bond
7.5.3 Spalling
7.5.3.1 Moisture content
7.5.3.2 Concrete porosity and permeability
7.5.3.3 Stress conditions
7.5.3.4 Aggregate type
7.5.3.5 Section profile and cover
7.5.3.6 Heating rate
7.5.3.7 Concrete strength
7.5.5 Detailing
8.1 CALCULATION OF TEMPERATURES
8.1.1 Basic principles
8.1.2 Heat flow in uninsulated steelwork
8.1.3 Heat flow in insulated steelwork
8.1.3.1 ECCS method of calculation
8.1.3.2 EN 1993-1-2 approach
8.1.4 Effect of moisture
8.1.4.1 Effective density of insulation
8.1.4.2 Delay time
8.1.5.1 Bare steelwork
8.1.5.2 Protected steelwork
8.1.6 Calculation ofAm/V
8.1.7 Thermal properties of insulation materials
8.2 DESIGN OF NON-COMPOSITE STEELWORK
8.2.2.1 Background to the EuroCode method
8.2.2.2 EuroCode methods
8.3 OTHER STEELWORK CONSTRUCTIONS
8.3.1 External steelwork
8.3.2 Shelf angle floors
8.4 STAINLESS STEEL
8.5 METHODS OF PROTECTION
8.5.1 Types of protection
8.5.1.1 Board systems
8.5.1.2 Spray protection
8.5.1.3 Intumescent paints
8.5.1.4 Brickwork/blockwork
8.5.1.5 Concrete encasement
8.5.1.6 Manufacturer’s data
8.5.2 Connections
8.5.3 Ageing of and partial loss of protection
8.5.3.1 Ageing effects
8.5.3.2 Partial loss of protection
9.1 COMPOSITE SLABS
9.1.1 Insulation requirement
9.1.1.1 Calculation approach
9.1.1.2 Effective thickness
9.1.2 Load-bearing capacity
9.1.2.1 Calculation of moment capacity
9.2 COMPOSITE BEAMS
9.2.1 Critical temperature approach
9.2.2 Full moment calculation
9.3 COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE COLUMNS
9.3.1 Concrete filled rolled hollow steel columns
9.3.1.1 EN 1994-1-2
9.3.1.2 Empirical methods
9.3.2 Web-infilled columns
10.1 DESIGN TO EN 1995-1-2
10.1.1 Depth of charring
10.1.1.1 Exposure to the standard furnace curve
10.1.2 Calculation of structural capacity
10.1.2.1 Effective section method
10.1.2.2 Reduced strength and stiffness method
10.2 EMPIRICAL APPROACHES
10.2.1 Approach developed by Ödeen
10.2.2 Approach developed by Lie for beams
10.2.4 Approach developed by Stiller
10.2.4.1 Beams
10.2.4.2 Columns
10.3 TIMBER FLOORS AND PROTECTED TIMBER SYSTEMS
10.3.1 Timber floors
10.3.2 Protected timber systems
11.1 MASONRY
11.1.2 Thermal bowing
11.1.3 Load-bearing cavity walls
11.2 ALUMINIUM
11.3 PLASTICS AND PLASTIC-BASED COMPOSITES
11.4 GLASS
12.1 TESTS ON ISOLATED FRAMES AND CONNECTIONS
12.1.1 Frame tests
12.1.2 Fire tests on beam and column assemblies
12.2 TESTS ON THE LARGE FRAME STRUCTURES AT CARDINGTON
12.2.1 Timber frame structure
12.2.2 Concrete frame structures
12.2.3 Composite steel frames
12.3 PITCHED ROOF PORTALS
13.1 VISUAL INSPECTION
13.1.1 Stability
13.1.2 Estimation of fire severity
13.2 DAMAGE ASSESSMENT
13.2.1 Structural survey
13.2.2 Materials testing
13.2.2.1 Concrete
13.2.2.2 Steel
13.3 STRENGTH ASSESSMENT OF THE STRUCTURE
13.3.1 Residual properties
13.3.1.1 Concrete
13.3.1.2 Structural steel
13.3.1.3 Reinforcing and pre-stressing steels
13.3.1.4 Cast and wrought iron
13.3.1.5 Masonry
13.3.2 Determination of temperatures within an element
13.4 METHODS OF REPAIR
13.5 DEMOLITION OF FIRE-DAMAGED STRUCTURES
References
Author index
Subject index
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Fire Safety Engineering - Design of Structures

Fire Safety Engineering - Design of Structures

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Published by: carricita on Mar 21, 2013
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