Alfred Thayer Mahan- American Navel officer and historian. Wrote The Influence of SeaPower upon History, 1660–1783 (1890) and The Influence of Sea Power upon the FrenchRevolution and Empire, 1793–1812. In his books, he wrote how the success of theAmerican Navy would result in the success of American politics and International trade by building up American defense . Theodore Roosevelt used this as an excuse to build upthe American Navy.Big Stick Policy-Quoting an African proverb, Roosevelt claimed that the right way toconduct foreign policy was to “speak softly and carry a big stick .” Roosevelt resorted to big-stick diplomacy most conspicuously in 1903, when he helped Panama to secede fromColombiaand gave the United States a Canal Zone. Construction began at once on thePanama Canal, which Roosevelt visited in 1906, the first president to leave the countrywhile in office. Other examples of wielding the big stick came in 1906 when Rooseveltoccupied and set up a military protectorate in Cuba and when he put pressure on Canadain a boundary dispute in Alaska.Boxer Rebellion- Officially supported peasant uprising in 1900 in China that attempted todrive all foreigners from the country. "Boxer" was the English name given to a Chinesesecret society that practiced boxing in the belief that it would make its membersimpervious to bullets. Support for them grew in northern China during the late 19thcentury, when China's people were suffering from growing economic impoverishmentand the country was forced to grant humiliating concessions to Western powers.Dollar Diplomacy - .S. foreign policy created by Pres.William H. Taftto ensure financialstability in a region in exchange for favourable treatment of U.S. commercialinterests.The policy grew out of Pres.Theodore Roosevelt's peaceful intervention in theDominican Republic, where U.S. loans had been exchanged for the right to choose thehead of customs (the country's major revenue source). Taft's secretary of state,Philander Knoxcarried out Dollar Diplomacy in Central America (1909) and China (1910). Pres.Woodrow Wilsonrepudiated the policy in 1913.Emilio Aguinaldo - When war broke out between Spain and the United States in April1898, Aguinaldo made arrangements with the U.S. consuls inHong Kongand Singaporeand with Commodore George Dewey to return from exile to fight against Spain. On June12 Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippine Islands from Spain, hoistedthe national flag, introduced a national anthem, and ordered a public reading of thedeclaration of independence.When he realized that the United States would not acceptimmediate and complete independence for the Philippines, he organized a revolutionagainst American rule that resulted in 3 years of bloody guerrilla warfare.14 points – Woodrow Wilson’s view of a post World War I that he hoped the other allied powers would endorse during the negotiations for the treaty of Versailles. It includedelimination of secret treaties, arms reductions, national self-determination, and thecreation of a League of Nations. Only the League of Nations was implemented.
George Dewey - When Congress declared war in late April 1898, Dewey sailed for Manila with six light cruisers and an assortment of auxiliary vessels. On May 1, after adaring night run past the batteries guarding the harbor entrance, he attacked a Spanishsquadron inManila Baythat was similar in strength and composition to his own. Whenthe firing ended, Dewey's force, without losing one man or ship, had sunk or setafireevery Spanish vessel. This one-sided victory paved the way for the American conquest of the Philippines, and it transformed the obscure naval officer into a popular hero.Henry Cabot Lodge - He an advocate of the Monroe Doctrine and a declaredAnglophobe. He was the chair of the Foreign Relations Committee, in the Senate'srefusal to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.John Fiske – Researched scientific theories of life, his
Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy
(1874) revealed his basic philosophical premise: societies evolve like biologicalorganisms, and the laws of their evolution.John Hay - As secretary of state, Hay conducted peace negotiations after the Spanish-American War, settled policy toward theFar East,improved the United States position inLatin America, and settled the dispute with Great Britain over the Alaskan boundary.John Pershing - Commander of American armies in Europe during World War I. For tenmonths Pershing pursued Villa into Mexico, but was ordered home in 1917 withoutcapturing him. A few months later Pershing was appointed commander of the AmericanExpeditionary Force (AEF) and was sent to France to guide American armies in WorldWar I.Josiah Strong - the 1890s he also emerged as one of the country's strongest voices insupport of American imperialism, a philosophy that held that the nation needed to expandits sphere of influence around the world to ensure it’s authority.Lusitania - British ocean liner sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland onMay 7, 1915. The British Admiralty had warned the Lusitania to avoid the area and to usethe evasive tactic of zigzagging, but the crew ignored these recommendations. Thoughunarmed, the ship was carrying munitions for the Allies, and the Germans had circulatedwarnings that the ship would be sunk. The loss of life — 1,198 people drowned,including 128 U.S. citizens — outraged public opinion. The U.S. protested Germany'saction, and Germany limited its submarine campaign against Britain. When Germanyrenewed unrestricted submarine warfare, the U.S. entered World War I in April 1917.The Maine – The U.S battleship which was blown up in the Havana Harbour, killing over 250 American citizens. Joseph Pultzer decried the event as an attack by the Spanish.Cause of the Spanish American war.