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Leavenworth Papers No. 20, Russian-Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucasus, Central Asia and Afghanistan

Leavenworth Papers No. 20, Russian-Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucasus, Central Asia and Afghanistan

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Published by Robert Vale
Paper concerning irregular warfare in late and post-Soviet eras.
Paper concerning irregular warfare in late and post-Soviet eras.

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Published by: Robert Vale on Mar 22, 2013
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07/28/2013

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LjeaiVqlWOr4
PaperS
Numbef2
Russian-Soviet
Unconventional
Wars
in
the
Caucasus,
Central
Asia,
and
Afghanistan
by
Dr.
Robert
F.
Baumann
AV1DIST
IUITN~
A
Approved
for
public
release;
Distribution
Unlimited
 
FOREWORD
In
recent years,the
U.S.
Army
has
paid
increasingattention
to
the
conduct
of
unconventional
warfare.
However,
the base
of
historical
experience
available
for
study
has
been
largely
Americanand overwhelmingly
Western.
In
Russian-SovietUnconventional
Wars
in
the
Caucasus,
Central Asia,
and
Afghanistan,
Dr.
Robert
F.
Baumann makes
a
significantcontribution
to
the
expansion
of
thatbase
with
a
well-researched
analysis
of
four
important
episodes
from
the
Russian-Soviet experience with unconventional
wars.
Primarily
employing Russian
sources,
including important
archival
documents
only
recentlydeclassified
and
made available
to
Western scholars,
Dr.
Baumannprovides an insightful
look
at
the
Russian
conquest
of
the
Caucasian
mountaineers
(1801-59),
the
subjugation
of
Central
Asia
(1839-81),
the reconquest
of
Central
Asia
by
the
Red Army
(1918-33),
and
the
Soviet
war
in
Afghanistan
(1979--89).
The
history
of
these
wars-especially
as
it
relates
tothe battle tactics,
force
structure,
and strategy
employed
in
them-offers
important new
perspectives
on
elements
of
continuityand
change
in
combat
over
two
centuries.
This
is
the
firststudy to
provide
anin-depth examination
of
the
evolution
of
the
Russianand Soviet unconventionalexperience
on
the
predominantly
Muslim
southern
periphery
of
the
former empire. There,
theRussians encountered
fierce
resistance
by
peoples
whosecultures
andviews
of
war
differedsharply
from
their
own. Consequently,
this
Leavenworth Paper
addresses
not only
issuesgermane
to combat
but
to
a
wide
spectrum
of
civic
andpropaganda
operations
as
well.
In
particular,
thesecases
illustrate the
problemscommonly confronted
by
conventional
military
powers
when
fighting
unconven-tional foes
in
undeveloped
theaters.
Such problemsinclude not
only
adjustment
to
the
tactics
of
an unfamiliar enemy
butthe
adaptation
of
one's
own
tactics
and
equipment
to
constraints
imposed
on
them
by
terrain,
climate, and
distance.
Political
andeconomic
considerations
also
played
a
central
role
and
contributedto important
shifts
in
Russian and Soviet
strategicdesigns.
Thus,
a
common
threadrunning through
each
of
these
studies
is
thechallenge
armies face
in
conceptualizing and implementing
changes
after combat
operations
have
begun.
Finally,
Dr.
Baumann
considers
broad
patterns
of
conduct
apparent
in
these
wars
and even compares
them
with
the
American
experience
in
similarconflicts.
This
study
will
be
of
broad
interest
to military
professionals
and
historians
alike.
April
1993
RICHARD
M.
SWAIN
Colonel,
Field
ArtilleryDirector, Combat
Studies
Institute
Director
COL
Richard
M.
Swain
Coordinatingnstructor/Executive
Officer
MAJ RodolfoR.
Diaz-Pons
Instructor
Team
I
LTC
Richard
V.
Barbuto,
Chief
LTC
Michael
J.
Silverstone
MAJ
Robert
E.
Connor
MAJ
George
J.
Mordica
III
Dr.
George
W.
Gawrych
Dr.
Samuel
J.
Lewis
Dr.
Michael
D.
Pearlman
Instructor
Team
II
Instructor
Team
Ill
LTC
Richard
L. Kiper,
Chief
LTC
Donald
B.
Connelly
Dr.
William
G.
Robertson,
Chief
LTC
Philip
J.
Baker
Jr.
LTC
Andrew
N.
Morris
MAJ
Stephen
D.
Coats
MAJ
William
M.
Campsey
MAJ
Scott
R.
McMeen
MAJ
Kenneth
R.
Dombroski
Dr.
Robert
F.
Baumann
Dr.
Jack
J.
Gifford
Dr.
Christopher
R.
Gabel
Dr.
Gary
J.
Bjorge
Dr.
Thomas
M.
Huber
Dr.
Jerold
E.
Brown
HistoricalServicesCommittee
Staff
LTC
Robert
D.
Ramsey
III,
Chief Marilyn
A.
Edwards,
Editor SSG
Samuel
L.
Brown
SGT
Dwayne
L.
BordersDonald
L.
Gilmore, EditorCarolyn
D.
Conway,
Sharon
E.
TorresEditorial
Assistant
LeavenworthPapers are published
by
the
Combat
Studies
Institute,
U.S.
Army
Command
and
General Staff
College,
Fort
Leavenworth,
KS
66027-6900.
The
views
expressed
in
this
publication
are those
of
the author and
not
necessarilythose
of
the
Department
of
Defense
or
any
elementthereof.
Leavenworth Papers
are
available
from
theSuperintendent
of
Documents,
U.S.
Government
PrintingOffice,
Washington,
DC
20402.
Leavenworth
Papers
US
ISSN
0195 3451
Cover:
Commander Ahmad
Shah
Masoud,
shown
inspecting
a
captured
Russian
AKS-74
with an underbarrel
40-mm
BG-15
grenade
launcher
 
DISCLAIMER
NOTICE
THIS
DOCUMENT
IS
BEST
QUALITY
AVAILABLE.
THE
COPYFURNISHED
TO
DTIC
CONTAINED
A
SIGNIFICANT
NUMBER
OF
PAGES
WHICH
DO
NOT
REPRODUCELEGIBLY.

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