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AP US HISTORY TERMS PRT 3

AP US HISTORY TERMS PRT 3

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Published by: wickedsunshine398 on Jan 23, 2008
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1William Penn- Founder of the colony Pennsylvania, wanted to establish the colony as a refugefor the Quakers. His colony was one of the most advertised, as he tried to attract immigrants.Recieved the charter as a gift in 1681, his goal was to make money off of the colony as well as totry out his ‘holy experiment’. Advocated the idea of a liberal government. The idea of his lawswere formed in a constitution called ‘the first frame of the government.” His choice of supporting James I in the Glorious Revolution proved to be the downfall of his relationship withhis colony, losing control of the colony around 1692. Pennsylvania and Deleware seperatedfollowing the uptake of the new religious leader, George Keith in 1691. In 1701, Pennsylvaniaenjoyed the election of its own Assembly which held more power than its governer. After hisdeath, the colony was passed on to his sons. Penn had also bought land from the Idquahon andLene Leape Indians, marking peacefull relations with his colony and the Indians. WithoutWilliam Penn, a haven for the severely discriminated Quakers would have never been establishedand his ideas of a liberal government may not have spread so quickly.Battle of Saratoga-This battle which took place during the American Revolutionary war wasfought against the Americans by the combination of the British and Germans troops at Saratogaon the Hudson river. The Americans won, forcing the Burgoyne army to surrender. Over 7000British and German troops had fought in the battle and only 3500 survived. This battlesymbolized one of the main turning points in the American Revolution as the victory of theAmericans convinced the French and the Spanish that they would not be dissapointed with theresults of the war. France and Spain soon declared war on Britain, as they supported theAmerican forces.Battle of Yorktown- Also taking place in the American Revolution, this battle took place inVirginia, as the American and French troops fought the British. General Washington was incharge of the Americans, Lietenant de Rochambeau of the French and Major Lord Cornwallis of the British troop. The Americans fought with over 8800 men while the British fought with over 6000 men. The Americans and the French won symbolizing the defeat of the British in theAmerican Revolution. Followed up by a peace treaty.Ben Franklin- First working on the paper,
The New England Courant 
, (the first newspaper to print news from abroad), he wrote the series of Silent Dogwood anonymously which providedadvice and criticized society. In 1791, Franklin bought and started to publish the PennsylvaniaGazette, well known, the newspaper was also the first to publish a political cartoon, drawn byFranklin himself. Starting in 1733, he started to publish the Poor Richard’s Almanack, a yearly publication. Advocating environmental clean ups, he started the first member organized libraryknown as the Library Company. He also organized the first fire company known asPhiladelphia’s Union Fire Company, later starting the Philadelphia Contribution, insuring itemslost to fire. While studying electricity, he also became involved in politics, initially fighting for representation of the colony of Philadelphia to writing a antislavery treaty in 1789. After  publicizing some letters by the Massachusetts governor Hutchinson, which showed his trueconnections with the King, Franklin was dishonored in British Politics and called the ‘Whitehall’He was elected into the Second Continental Congress, helped write the declaration of Independence, and helped to strengthen French and American ties, persuading the french to loanmoney to America. He was also a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. Also known for hisinvolvement in the Congress of Albany. The number of contributions which he contributed both
 
scientifically and politically are innumerous, one of the most influential men during his time period.Boston Massacre- The burst of tensions building up from the several unfair taxes placed uponAmericans recently such as the Stamp Act. Took place on March 5, 1770. British soldierssupervised by Hugh White were standing guard of the Customs House in Boston. A group of Americans, angered by the new taxes placed upon themselves started to crowd near the gate, prompting Hugh White to order more soldiers. Nine more arrived ,the crowd fearing the newtroops started to attack the soldiers with rocks and snowballs, evoking the soldiers to fire into thecrowd, killing two people. Although the soldiers were brought to trial, they were not punished,showing the Americans the unfair treatment that they received, escalating tensions among theAmericans, pushing them to pursue the British further more. One of the first actions which theAmericans took against the British.Coercive Acts of 1774- Also known of the Restraining Acts or the Intolerable Acts, were passedas a reaction towards the Boston tea Party .Included the Boston Port Act, Quartering Act,Administration of justice act and the Massachusetts Government Act. The Americans organizedthe First Continental Congress in 1774 following the passage of these laws.Declaratory Act- Parliament passed this act following the Boston Tea Massacre which was toassure the colonists that they were being represented in parliament although they had norepresentives in it. (Virtual representation) Followed the repeal of the Stamp Act which theAmericans were protesting. The Act also stated that Britain had the right to levy the same taxesin Britain as in America. Another reason why Americans wished to rebel against the British sincethey had to pay full taxes although they never enjoyed the full benefits.George Washington- First known for his involvement in the French and Indian war, he served inthe Virginian House of Burguees and was later elected as the Commander of Chief by the SecondContinental Congress in 1775. Joining with French troops, he led the Americans to victory at the battle of Yorktown. Leading the Continental Constitutional Convention at 1787, he was the only president to be elected unanimously. Refraining from foreign politics, he severed ties withforeign nations, proclaiming a statement of neutrality. He also advocated against political partiesreasoning that they would divide the nation, resulting into a state of anarchy followed by the breakdown of the newly formed democratic ‘experiment’. Founding Father of America.John Dickinson- Represented Deleware and Pennsyvania. He was one of the men who wished tonegotiate with the British rather than go to war with them, reasoning that the Americans were part of the King. This attitude showed in his action of refusing to sign the Declaration of Independence. Elected to represent the colony of Pennsyvania due to his cordial efforts of sustaining relations between America and Britain during the Stamp Act Congress of 1765.Author of the ‘letters from a farmer of Pennsylvania’ Involving himself in the ContinentalCongress, he contributed majorly writing two petitions. One to the British government asking for reconsideration of their acts and another which he asked the Canadians for guidance in thestruggle against the British. The Olive Branch petition was his idea and he wrote most of it.Supported his idea that citizens should defend themselves from Britain in his paper, "Declarationof Causes for Taking Up Arms," , Organized a volunteer milita group called the Associates.Represented Deleware in the Continental Congress until 1781. Represented the state at the
 
Annapolis Convention and the Philadelphia Convention. Supported the idea of a strong nationalgovernment. Refused to sign the Great Compromise. Through letters signed ‘Fabius’he spreadhis support of the new government based on checks and balances to the people.John Jay- Within the Articles of Confederation, he served as the Secretary for Foreign Affairs.Supported the Olive Branch Petition, later became the Chief justice of the state supreme court,moving on as the President of the Continental Congress. Served as the commissioner to Franceand Spain. The Jay’s treaty was negotiated by himself, regarding the unfair practice of the Britishseizing American merchant ships. As a federalist, he voiced his opion in many essays including a pamphlet called "An Address to the People of New York,"In 1789,he became the chief justice of the supreme court.Loyalists- Those who were loyal to the King during the American Revolution. They were mostlyrich and had much to lose if the British had the lost the war. They regarded themselves as‘patriotic; loyal to the British, while they thought that the Americans were rebels and anarchists.Lived mostly throughout New England. Their land was confisticated after the war.Patrick Henry- A lawyer from Virginia, he was elected in to the House of Burgesses and was later elected into the Continental Congress. In 1776, he became the Governer of Virginia. “Give meLiberty or Give me death” one of his sayings, became one of the most passionate sayings during theAmerican Revolution. He advocated the addition of the Bill of Rights intothe Constitution. He took  part in the Virginia Convention, voicing his support of breaking apart from Britain, a passionatefighter, he was seen as an ideal rebel.Pontiac’s Rebellion- Took place right after the French and Indian war. The Indians who had helpedthe French during th e war were disappointed by their failure. The French had promised the Indiansland and other rights to gain them on their side, all was lost when the French lost and the Indianswere expected to join under the English crown. The British had very limited relations with theIndians, as they often sought to abuse and take advantage of them instead of treating them as equalsas the French had done. The Deleware Prophet preached the idea of turning away from the Britishand observing their traditional ways of life. The idea spread and many Indians chose to sever tieswith the English, viewed as the enemy. In Ohio, the chief of the Indians planned on taking over FortDetroit and suceeded. The British later tried to take over the Pontiac village and failed in the Battleof Bloody Run. The Battle of Bushy war as well as other wars which took place until the proclamation of 1763, between the British and the angered Indians was labeled the Pontiac’sRebellion.Samuel Adams- In 1764, he was elected into the Massachusetts Legislation and later started acommittee and later write and publish the Declaration of Colonial Rights.. He led the protest agisntthe Stamp Act, founded the Sons of Liberty and was the primary organizers of the Boston Tea Party.Joining the Continental Congress, he also signed the Declaration of Independence. In 1779, he became the president of the Massachusetts state senate later in 1781, he became the member of theMassachusetts state constitutional convention. In 1788, he ran to be elected into the first congress, hewas not elected. In the same year, he became the Lieutenant governor of Massachusetts and in 1789,he became the governor of Massachusetts.

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