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Glossary of Important Islamic Terms-For Course

Glossary of Important Islamic Terms-For Course

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Published by ibrahim
There is a great interest in Islamic Studies in recent years. Theis glossary will be helpful to the interested readers.
There is a great interest in Islamic Studies in recent years. Theis glossary will be helpful to the interested readers.

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Published by: ibrahim on Mar 12, 2009
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05/10/2014

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Glossary of Islamic Terms
Ibrahim Ozdemir, Ph.D.
[
 I used this glossary of terms, when I was teaching at Hartford Seminary. I will appreciate anysuggestions to improve and enrich it 
].
Allah:
the Supreme Being, the one and only God.
 Allah
in Arabic implies the one and only trueGod, the beginning and the end of everything, neither born nor giving birth. He is merciful, theBeneficent, the Knowledgeable, the Protector, the Mighty, the God, the Provider, the Exalted, theLord, the All-Knowing, the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the Magnificent, the Wise, the Loving,the First, the Last, and the Eternal. The Qur'an mentions 99 beautiful names for Allah throughwhich Muslim do recognize Him, and His responsibilities for the whole Universe. Many peopleask why the term "Allah" is used instead of "God" and assume it's use implies that Muslimsworship a separate God. Allah is exactly the same word that the Jews, in Hebrew, use for God(eloh), the word that Jesus Christ used in Aramaic when he prayed to God.
Allahu-Akbar
: God is the Most Great.
Adhan
: The call to prayer pronounced loudly to indicate that the time of praying is due.
Am
 î 
n
: O Allah, accept our invocation.
Caliph
: The
 Im
â
m
or the Muslim ruler. Successor of 
Muhammad
as leader of the Muslim orcommunity
Caliphate:
political institution led by or reign of a
caliph'Eid-al-Adh
â
: The Festival of Sacrifice is celebrated throughout the Muslim world as acommemoration of Prophet Ibrahim's (PBUH) willingness to sacrifice his son for God. Eid-ul-Adha is celebrated on the tenth day of the month of Zul-Hijja.
Eid-al-Fitr
: The three-day festival of Muslims starting from the first day of Shaww
â
l, the monththat follows Ramad
â
n immediately.
Fitr 
Iiterally means 'breaking the fast.' Muslims fast the wholeof Ramad
â
n, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and when Shaww
â
l comes, they break theirfast.
1
 
Fasting:
Fasting from dawn to sunset during the month of 
 Ramadan
, the ninth month in theIslamic lunar calendar, is required of those whose health permits. It is a complete fast, requiringthat nothing be taken into the body but needed medication. During
 Ramadan
there is an emphasison piety and religious observances. Those who are ill or traveling do not have to fast during
 Ramadan
but must compensate by fasting and by contributing to the
 Zakat
.
Fatwa:
a religious opinion issued by a
muftiFiqh: S
tudy of Islamic law or jurisprudence
 Five Pillars of Islam:
five basic principles meant to guide each Muslim onto the path of rightbehavior. They are the frameworks of the Muslim life: faith, prayer, concern for the needy, self-purification, and the pilgrimage to Makkah for those who are able.
Hadith:
A saying of the Prophet transmitted outside the Qur'an through a chain of knownintermediaries. There are two kinds of 
hadith
:
hadith qudsi
(sacred sentence), a direct revelation,in which God speaks in the first person by the mouth of the Prophet, and
hadith nabawi
(prophetic sentence), an indirect revelation in which the Prophet speaks as himself.
Hajj:
The pilgrimage to Mecca once in one's lifetime is required of all those who have thephysical and financial ability to make the journey. The rituals of the hajj were established by theProphet. They emphasize repentance, resulting in forgiveness by God. The practice alsostrengthens the bond among the faithful from all walks of life and regions of the world. It isperformed during the Islamic lunar month of Dhu al-hijja.
Halal and Haram:
These are two Arabic words to mean lawful an unlawful respectively. Thestandards are based on the Qur'an and the Hadith; and Muslims are to abide in their daily lifeactivities by the teachings of their standards. These two concepts are very important when onetalks about moral, physical, spiritual, medical, biological, and dietetic aspects of Islam. Muslimstalk regularly about Halal and Haram for anything they do.
Hegira/hijrah:
the movement of Muslims and the prophet
Muhammad
from
Mecca
to
Medina
in the year 622 C.E.. On the Muslim religious calendar A.H. 1 began on July 16, 622 C.E. and allhistorical events that occurred after that date are designated as A.H.
Ihs
â
n
: The highest level of deeds and worship, (perfection i.e. when you worship Allah or dodeeds, consider yourself as if you see Him and if you cannot achieve this feeling or attitude, thenyou must bear in mind that He sees you).
2
 
Imam:
1) Muslim religious or political leader; 2)one of the succession of leaders, beginning with
Ali,
viewed by the
Shia
as legitimate; 3)leader in prayer; 4) may also refer to the tomb or shrineof a religious leader
 Im
â
n:
Faith, Belief.
Islam:
Islam means submission, that is, submission to the will of God, the characteristic attitudeof members of our faith. Muslim (also spelled Moslem) is based on the same Arabic root as Islam`(s-l-m) and means one who submits to God, that is, a believer in Islam.
Kaba (kabah):
The Ka`aba is a building located within the court of the Great Mosque at Mecca.Muslims all over the world face in the direction of the Ka`aba while praying. Pilgrims at Meccaare supposed tocircumambulatethe Ka`aba. The Ka`aba contains a sacred black stone.
Khutbah:
sermon
La Ilaha ill All
â
h:
There is none worthy of worship except Allah (God).
Lunar Calendar
: In their religious duties, Muslims depend on solar and lunar calendars. Thelatter is shorter than the solar by twelve days. Fasting the month of Ramadhan, celebrating the twomajor feasts ('Eid Al-Fitr and 'Eid Al-Adhha), performing the pilgrimage to Makkah, and otherreligious activities depend upon the lunar months. The timing of the daily prayers depends on thesolar system. The names of the lunar months are: Maharrem, Safar, Rabi' Al-Awwal, Rabi' Al-Akhar, Jamada Al-Akhirah, Rajab, Sha'ban, Ramadhan, Shawwal, Zul-Qi'dah, and Zul-HIjjah.
Jesus (Isa): 
Muslims respect and revere Jesus. They consider him one of the greatest of God'smessengers to mankind. A Muslim never refers to him simply as 'Jesus', but always adds thephrase 'upon him be peace'. The Qur’an confirms his virgin birth (a chapter of the Qur’an isentitled 'Mary'), and Mary is considered the purest woman in all creation.
Jihad:
In the linguistic sense, the Arabic word "jihad" means struggling or striving and applies toany effort exerted by anyone. This word has been in frequent use in the Western press over thepast several years, explained directly or subtlety, to mean holy war. In its primary sense it is aninner thing, within self, to rid it from debased actions or inclinations, and exercise constancy andperseverance in achieving a higher moral standard. Military action is therefore a subgroup of theJihad and not its totality. That was what prophet Mohammad emphasized to his companions whenreturning from a military campaign, he told them: "This day we have returned from the minor jihad (war) to the major jihad (self-control and betterment)."
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