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Coal Mining Conversion Use

Coal Mining Conversion Use

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Published by H.J.Prabhu
Coal is a mineral that is mined and processed to produce Electric Energy, Fuels and Chemicals. Mining and Utilisation of coal is now seriously studied from Environmental Impact Assessment and development of technological solutions to the problems.
Coal is a mineral that is mined and processed to produce Electric Energy, Fuels and Chemicals. Mining and Utilisation of coal is now seriously studied from Environmental Impact Assessment and development of technological solutions to the problems.

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Published by: H.J.Prabhu on Mar 23, 2013
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 1
COAL AVAILABILITY & ITS UTILIZATION IN INDIA
What is coal? Where in India are coal and lignite available? Give the utilization patternfor coal in India? List the coal conversion processes. Name the products obtained.Coal is a product of decay of plant debris formed over geological time scale,under sedimentary sequences in a stratified form. It is classified into peat, lignite,bituminous and anthracite -based on the degree of advance in coalification process.Besides the organic content it contains
mineral matter in its matrix. It is an “Organicrock.”
 Approximate chemical formula of coal is (C
3
H
4
)
n
It is a hydrogen deficient solid hydrocarbon probably consisting of many interlockedaromatic rings.Reserves of 
Coal
in India were estimated by the Geological Survey of India in1998-99approximately as
79 billion tonnes
and
Lignite
reserves as
29.36 billiontonnes
.States having coal deposits in India: Bihar (including Jharkhand), Bengal,Madhya Pradesh (including Chattisgarh), Maharashtra, Andhra and Orissa.
LIGNITE:
Reserve available in Tamil Nadu (1999) = 26 billion tones,Rest of the reserves is in Rajasthan and Gujarat.Coal production in India: 1983-84: 138 million tonnes
2000-01
:
300 ,, ,,
Lignite production in :
1997-98:
 
23 million tonnes
 
Utilization Pattern for coal in India:
Power Generation,To manufacture coke and in Steel mills,Cement manufacture, Textile and RailwaysSmaller use: As household fuel
Coal Conversion Processes & products:
1.
 
Coke Manufacture (Coke, Coaltar, Gas)2.
 
Coal Tar Distillation (aromatics,pitch)3.
 
Coal Gasification (Synthesisgas, Fuel gas)4.
 
Liquefaction of Coal(hydrocarbons) F.T.5.
 
Coal Hydrogenation (liquidhydrocarbons)6.
 
Coal combustion (Steam forpower)
Refer: S. SARCAR, FUELS AND COMBUSTION, 2 ED. 1990, CH 3 & CH 4
Ch 3: Coal as solid fuel, ranking, origin, composition, analysis, action of heat, oxidationand hydrogenation of coal.Ch 4: Coal preparation, storage, carbonization, briquetting, gasification and liquefaction.
 
 2
CHEMICALS FROM COKE OVEN DISTILLATE 
When coal is heated in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of about 1000
o
C, cokeforms together with liquid and gaseous decomposition products. It is this distillate, alsocalled
coal tar 
, which was a source of aromatics and many other chemicals for the earlychemical industry.A typical coking operation produces 80% coke by weight, 12% coke oven gas, 3% tarand 1% light oil consisting of crude benzene, toluene and xylenes.
CHEMICALS
: BENZENE, TOLUENE, XYLENES, INDENE, COUMARONE,PHENOLS, CRESOLS, PYRIDINES, ANTHRACENE, PHENANTHRENE,CARBAZOLE, and PITCH (60% 0F TAR).
FISCHER TROPSCH REACTION:
COAL
SYNTHESIS GAS
MIXTURES OF ALKANES(IRON, NICKEL, COBALTCATALYST, 150-300
o
C)This process is not economical now as a route from coal to hydrocarbons.
COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES:
Process Main characteristicsTexaco Pressurised entrained bed process involving the use of a watery slurryof powdered coal. Less suited for lignite. Product gas low in methane,and tar free. Low H
2
 /CO ratio (~ 0.7).Lurgi Pressurized moving bed process suitable for noncoking, granular coal.Relatively high steam consumption. Product gas rich in methane,residual steam, and CO
2
and contains tar, H
2
 /CO ratio (~ 0.5)Koppers-Totzek Atmospheric entrained bed process Powdered coal, high oxygen &steam used. Suitable for Syn-gas for ammonia/methanol.Winkler Suitable for lignite, fluid bed process 800-1000
o
C Atm. pressure.High temp.WinklerPressurized stationary fluid bed process for lignite. Higher gasificationrates, better conversion than Winkler.British Gas-Lurgi slagginggasifierPressurized moving bed process- non-coking granular coal based. Lesssteam consumption, smaller reaction volumes and pure product gasthan via Lurgi process.Shell Pressurized entrained bed
 — 
Dry coal powder, lignite suitable. Highthermal efficiency, pure product gas like that of Koppers- Totzek 
COAL HYDROGENATION: 
In the F-T process, the hydrogen required to convert coal to aliphatic hydrocarbons isultimately derived from water. In Bergius process, coal, lignite or coal tar werehydrogenated over an iron catalyst at 450
o
C and 700 bar. Less drastic conditions weresufficient for coal hydrogenation when a solvent tetralin was used to hydrogenate the coalin a liquid- solid phase process at about 200
o
C and 65 bar.Reference:
Dryden’s OUTLINE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, 3
rd
Edition,1997, Ch.Coal & Coal Chemicals, pp 370-378.
 
 3
COAL UTILIZATION
What is coal and where in India is it available? Give the utilization pattern for coal inIndia? List the coal conversion processes. Name the products obtained.Approximate chemical formula of coal is (C
3
H
4
)
n
It is a hydrogen deficient solid hydrocarbon probably consisting of many interlockedaromatic rings.Reserves of 
Coal
in India were estimated by the Geological Survey of India in1998-99 approximately as
79 billion tonnes
and
Lignite
reserves as
29.36billion tonnes
.States having coal deposits in India: Bihar (including Jharkhand), Bengal,Madhya Pradesh (including Chattisgarh), Maharashtra, Andhra and Orissa.Lignite: Reserve available in Tamil Nadu (1999) = 26 billion tones,Rest of the reserves is in Rajasthan and Gujarat.Coal production in India: 1983-84: 138 million tonnes
2000-01
:
300 ,, ,,
Lignite production in :
1997-98:
 
23 million tonnes
 
Utilization Pattern for coal in India:
Power Generation,To manufacture coke and in Steel mills,Cement manufacture and RailwaysSmaller use: As household fuel
Coal Conversion Processes & products:
1. Coke Manufacture (Coke, Coal tar, Gas) 2. Coal Tar Distillation (aromatics, pitch)3. Coal Gasification (Synthesis gas, Fuel gas) 4. Liquefaction of Coal (hydrocarbons)5. Coal Hydrogenation (liquid hydrocarbons) 6. Coal combustion (Steam for power)
Refer: S. SARCAR, FUELS AND COMBUSTION, 2 ED. 1990, CH 3 & CH 4
Ch 3: Coal as solid fuel, ranking, origin, composition, analysis, action of heat,oxidation and hydrogenation of coal.Ch 4: Coal preparation, storage, carbonization, briquetting, gasification andliquefaction.

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