CHEMICALS FROM COKE OVEN DISTILLATE
When coal is heated in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of about 1000
C, cokeforms together with liquid and gaseous decomposition products. It is this distillate, alsocalled
, which was a source of aromatics and many other chemicals for the earlychemical industry.A typical coking operation produces 80% coke by weight, 12% coke oven gas, 3% tarand 1% light oil consisting of crude benzene, toluene and xylenes.
: BENZENE, TOLUENE, XYLENES, INDENE, COUMARONE,PHENOLS, CRESOLS, PYRIDINES, ANTHRACENE, PHENANTHRENE,CARBAZOLE, and PITCH (60% 0F TAR).
FISCHER TROPSCH REACTION:
MIXTURES OF ALKANES(IRON, NICKEL, COBALTCATALYST, 150-300
C)This process is not economical now as a route from coal to hydrocarbons.
COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES:
Process Main characteristicsTexaco Pressurised entrained bed process involving the use of a watery slurryof powdered coal. Less suited for lignite. Product gas low in methane,and tar free. Low H
/CO ratio (~ 0.7).Lurgi Pressurized moving bed process suitable for noncoking, granular coal.Relatively high steam consumption. Product gas rich in methane,residual steam, and CO
and contains tar, H
/CO ratio (~ 0.5)Koppers-Totzek Atmospheric entrained bed process Powdered coal, high oxygen &steam used. Suitable for Syn-gas for ammonia/methanol.Winkler Suitable for lignite, fluid bed process 800-1000
C Atm. pressure.High temp.WinklerPressurized stationary fluid bed process for lignite. Higher gasificationrates, better conversion than Winkler.British Gas-Lurgi slagginggasifierPressurized moving bed process- non-coking granular coal based. Lesssteam consumption, smaller reaction volumes and pure product gasthan via Lurgi process.Shell Pressurized entrained bed
Dry coal powder, lignite suitable. Highthermal efficiency, pure product gas like that of Koppers- Totzek
In the F-T process, the hydrogen required to convert coal to aliphatic hydrocarbons isultimately derived from water. In Bergius process, coal, lignite or coal tar werehydrogenated over an iron catalyst at 450
C and 700 bar. Less drastic conditions weresufficient for coal hydrogenation when a solvent tetralin was used to hydrogenate the coalin a liquid- solid phase process at about 200
C and 65 bar.Reference:
Dryden’s OUTLINE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, 3
Edition,1997, Ch.Coal & Coal Chemicals, pp 370-378.