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AP Calculus Formula

# AP Calculus Formula

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03/23/2013

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AP Calculus Formulas
Chapter 1 Functions , Limit and Continuity
1.Elementary functions and its graphs(1)Power Function
y
=
x
n

, (2)Exponential Function
y
=
e
x
, (3)Logarithmic Function
y
=log
a
x
.(4)Trigonometric Function
y
=sin
x
, cos
x
, tan
x
, cot
x
, sec
x
, csc
x
.(5)Inverse Trigonometric Function
y
=sin
1
x
, cos
1
x
, tan
1
x
, cot
1
x
, sec
1
x
, csc
1
x
.2.

Four Ways to Represent a Function(1)
y
=
f
(
x
) (2)parametric

x
f
(
)
y
g
(
)(3)ploar
=
f
(
θ
) (4)vector
(
)=<
f
(
) ,
g
(
) >3. Present the
Vertical Line Test
for curves in the plane.2. Some important limits(1)
x x
x
sinlim
0
(2)

x x x x
xe x
10
)1(lim) 11(lim
+==+
(3)
01110111
lim)()(lim
b xb xb xb a xa xa xa  xQ xP
nnnnmmmm x x
++++ ++++ =
LL
=

a
m
b
n

(
m

=

n
)

(
m

>

n
)

0

(
m

<

n
)
Chapter 2 Derivatives
1.(1)
a xa f  x f  ha f ha f   x ya f
a xh x
=+==
)()( lim)()( limlim)(
00
(2)One
side derivative
a xa f  x f  ha f ha f  a f
a xh
=+=
++
+
)()( lim)()( lim)(
0

a xa f  x f  ha f ha f  a f
a xh
=+=
)()( lim)()( lim)(
0

[Remark] :(1)Geometric interpretation of derivativesThetangent lineof the graph of
f
(
x
) at the point
P
= (
a
,
f
(
a
)) is the line through
P
whose slope isthe limit of the secant slopes as a nearby point
Q
approaches
P
. This limit is the derivative
)(
a f
of f at
a
. The equation for the tangent line to
f
(
x
) at the (
a
,
f
(
a
)) is then given by
y
=
f
(
a
) +
)(
a f
• (
x

a
).(2)Physical interpretation of derivatives

The derivative can also be interpreted as theinstantaneous rate of change, for example, thevelocity of a moving object at the instant
.2.TheoremIf a function
f

is
differentiable
at
x

=

c
, then
f

is
continuous
at
x

=

c
..[Remark]
Differentiability implies continuity, where continuity doesn’t imply differentiability.
3.Derivative formulas of basic elementary functions(1)
1
=
rx xdx
,
R. (2)
x x
eedx
=
;
x x
ln
=
(3)0,1ln
>=
x x xdx
;0,ln1log
>=
xa x xdx
a
;
dxduuudx
×=
1)ln(.(4)
x xdx
cossin
=
;
x xdx
sincos
=
;
x xdx
2
sectan
=
;
x xdx
2
csccot
=
;
x x xdx
tansecsec
=
;
x x xdx
cotcsccsc
=
;(5)
21
11sin
x xdx
=
;
21
11cos
x xdx
=
;
21
11tan
x xdx
+=
;
21
11cot
x xdx
+=
;1||1sec
21
=
x x xdx
;1||1csc
21
=
x x xdx
;4.Operations
(1))()())()((
xgdx x f dx xg x f  dx
±=±
(2))()()()())()((
xg x f  x f  xg xg x f  dx
×+×=
(3)
2
))(()()()()( )()(
xg xg x f  x f  xg  xg x f dx
××=
5.
Chain Rule
If
g
is differentiable at
x
and
is differentiable at
g
(
x
), then the composite function defined by
f
g
=
f
(
g
(
x
)) is differentiable at
x
and)())(())((
xg xg f  xg f  dx
×=
.If
y
=
f
(
u
) and
u
=
g
(
x
) are both differentiable function then
dxdududydxdy
×=
.Common forms of the Chain Rule:(1)It can combine chain rule with product rule, quotient rule,...(2)Power Rule combined with Chain Rule : if
is any real number and
u
=
g
(
x
) is differentiable

, then :
1
)(
×=
nn
unudx
or)())(())((
1
xg xgn xg dx
nn
××=
Example : Evaluate the derivatives of the following using the Chain Rule1.
y
= (
x
3
− 1)
100
2.
y
=
e
tan
x
3.
y
= ln(sin
x
)6
. Implicit Differentiation
An implicit function is defined implicitly by a relation between
x
and
y
. (It is not of the usual form
y
=
f
(
x
).) For an implicit function, it is not necessary to solve the equation for
y
in terms of
x
tofind the derivative of
y
. Implicit differentiation consists of differentiating both sides of theequation with respect to
x
and then solving the resulting equation for
dxdy y
=
.Example : Find
dxdy
using implicit differentiation1.
x
3
+
y
3
= 3
xy
2.sin(
x
+
y
)= cos
x
7.
Logarithmic Differentiation Steps
(1). Take
ln(
)
of both sides of the equation and use
log
Properties to simplify(2). Differentiate implicitly with respect to
x
(3). Solve the resulting equation for
y
.8.Inverse functionSuppose that)(
x f
> 0 or)(
x f
< 0 for all
x
in an open interval I containing
c
, so that there is aninverse function
g
to
f
, defined on an open interval containing
f
(
c
) =
, with
g
(
) =
c
.Then
g
isdifferentiable at
and))((1)(1)(
g f  x f  g
==
.9.Parametric differentaition
dt dxdt dydxdy
=
,
dt dxdxdydt dx y
)(
22
=