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Physics

# Physics

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Physics
Physics

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08/27/2013

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PHYSICS FORCLASSES VII TO X
CONTENTS
Page No.
1.Class X22.Class IX253.Class VIII434.Class VII57
The publisher has taken all possible precautions in preparing the C.D. yet if any mistakaeshas crept in, the publisher shall not be responsible for the same. Re-production of the whole or any part of the contents in English or any other languagewithout the written permission of the publisher is prohibited.

CLASS - XMEASUREMENT OF LENGTH
Screw Gauge :
A screw gauge is used to measure the thickness of a thin glass plateand the diameter of a thin wire or a small sphere. It works on theprinciple of a screw in a nut and hence it is called screw gauge.
The distance travelled by the tip of a screw for one complete rotationof its head is called the pitch of the screw.Pitch of the screw,P =
Pitch of the screw, P =
nx
Least Count, L.C.=
=
NP
Diameter of a wire or thickness of an object = P.S.R + H.S.R. x L.C.
If the zeroth division of the head scale does not coincide with theindex line the screw gauge has zero error.
Positive zero Error :
If the zeroth division of the head scale is belowthe index line of the pitch scale, the error is said to be positive andthe correction is negative.
Negative zero Error:
If the zeroth division of the head scale is abovethe index line of the pitch scale, the error is said to be negative andthe correction is positive.

OUR UNIVERSE : GRAVITATION
F =
221
rmmG
where G is the Universal Gravitational Constant.
NEWTONS LAW OF GRAVITATION:
Every body in the universe attracts every other body with a forcewhich is directly proportional to the product of their masses andinversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The force acts along the line joining the two bodies.
2222 2
KgNmorKg/Nm or)kg(x)kg( )metre(xnewton Gof Units
=
Acceleration due to Gravity :
The uniform acceleration producedin a freely falling body due to the gravitational pull of the earth isknown as acceleration due to gravity and is denoted by ‘g’.
2
rGMg
=
The values of G, M and r are :
Gravitational constant,G = 6.67 x 10
-11
N m
2
/kg
2
Mass of the earthM = 6 x 10
24
kg
Radius of the earthr = 6.4 x 10
6
mg =9.8 m/s
2
The calculations show that ‘g’ value on moon is 1.67 m/s
2
and onSun it is 27.4 m/s
2
Mass and weight:
Mass :
The mass of a body is the quantity of matter contained in it.It is an inherent, and fundamental property of the body.
It is independent of external factors like position and surroundings.
Thus, the mass of a given body will be the same at the equator aswell as at the poles of the earth, or for that matter, any where in theUniverse.
Weight of a body :
The weight of a body, is the force with which it isattracted by the earth towards its center, and is equal to the productof its mass and the acceleration due to gravityW = m g
One kilogram weight is that gravitational force which acts on a bodyof mass 1 kg.