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Detection of Retinal Blood Vessel using Kirsch algorithm

Detection of Retinal Blood Vessel using Kirsch algorithm

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Journal of Computing, http://www.journalofcomputing.org, call for papers, Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2013
Journal of Computing, http://www.journalofcomputing.org, call for papers, Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2013

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Detection of Retinal Blood Vessel usingKirsch algorithm
Nithin N, Anupkumar M Bongale and Jayakrishna R
 
Abstract
This paper presents a new method for detecting and extracting blood vessels in retinal fundus images using Kirschedge detection algorithm. We have used the gold standard public database which contains retinal images of healthy patients,patients with diabetic retinopathy and glaucomatous patients. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated basedon whether the blood vessel is properly detected or not. We have considered estimated positive value (Ep) and estimatednegative value (En) as evaluation parameters and obtained considerably good results. The segmentation technique is verysimple and found effective and robust with different image conditions.
Index Terms
Retinal blood vessel, Kirsch algorithm, segmentation, edge detection
——————————
 
 
——————————
 
1 I
NTRODUCTION
ETINOPATHY
is a form of acute damage to theretina of the eye. If the patient prolongs the treat-ment of diseased eye, it may lead to vascular re-modelling. Disorders like diabetes, hypertension, arte-riosclerosis etc. can affect the structure of the bloodvessel of eyes. Diabetes, hypertension and retinopathyleads to variations in shape and dimension on retina[1-3]. Examination of changes in the structure of retinais useful in understanding the stages of the diseaseprocess and their adverse effect on vision. Medical im-aging of retina can lead to several answers regardingpossible treatment of diabetic retinopathy. To under-stand the disease stage of the retina, retinal imagesneed to be processed using several image processingtechniques. To clearly understand the diseases of eyessuch as aneurysms, haemorrhages, exudates, andmacular edema [1], segmentation of retinal blood ves-sels is the preliminary and primary step.
 
2 R
ELATED
W
ORK
 
In most of the ophthalmological image processingoperations segmentation of retinal blood vessel is per-formed. We will briefly describe the methods beingproposed by the researchers. Echevarria et al. in [4]have proposed segmentation methods based on levelsets and fast marching methods. An automated meth-od of detection and extraction of blood vessels in reti-nal images composed of three steps matched filtering,fuzzy c-median (FCMED) clustering and label filteringis proposed [5,6]. Gabor filters are also used in detec-tion of blood vessels [7]. In [8], optic fundus blood ves-sel skeleton recognition based on band tree is pro-posed. Using green grey scale ocular fundus image theskeleton feature of optic fundus blood vessel is extract-ed. After filtering treatment and extracting feature, theband tree represented vector curve of blood vessels isobtained. The band tree matching is later carried outby means of reference point matching and tree index-ing.Siddalingaswamy and Prabhu in [9] have proposeda hybrid method for efficient segmentation of multipleoriented blood vessels in colour retinal images. Acomplex Gabor filter is used for segment the bloodvessels and to supress the background noise. The de-tected vessels are enhanced using entropic thresh hold-ing based on grey level co-occurrence matrix. In [10], anew neural network scheme is used for pixel classifica-tion to extract the blood vessels.Pourreza et al. in [11] have presented an algorithmfor vessel detection in retinal color images whichworks based on local Radon transform and morpho-logical reconstruction. Youssef et al. in [12] have pro-vided a feature-based method for early detection ofexudates and proposed a method for extracting theblood vessel tree based on simple morphological oper-ations. The method is based on segmenting all objectsthat have contrast with the background including theexudates. After eliminating other objects from the im-age, the exudates are extracted.
3 W
ORKING OF
K
IRSCH
E
DGE
D
ETECTIONALGORITHM
 
Edge detection is a process of identifying suddenchanges in the pixel values of an image. The typicaloutput of edge detection algorithm is to produce animage containing grey level pixels of value 0 or 255.The pixel grey value 0 indicates a black pixel and 255indicates a white pixel. Edge information of a particu-lar pixel is obtained by determining the brightness lev-el of the neighbouring pixels. If there are no major dif-ferences in brightness level then there is a possibility
 ———————————————— 
 
 
Nithin N is with the Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, India-576104.
 
 
 Anupkumar M Bongale is with the Manipal Institute of Technology, Ma-nipal, India-576104.
 
 Jayakrishna R is with the Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, India-576104.
 
R
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 5, ISSUE 1, JANUARY 2013, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputingWWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG55© 2013 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617
 
 
the there is no edge in the image. The described proce-dure is most common and fundamental approach forall the available edge detection algorithms such as So-bel, Prewitt, Laplacian of Gaussian, Kirsch edge detec-tion methods. In this paper we have used Kirsch EdgeDetection technique to segment blood vessels fromretinal images. Further we will briefly describe work-ing of Kirsch algorithm.The Kirsch edge detection algorithm uses 3×3 tableconvolution table. The convolution table contains in-formation of a pixel and its neighbours. The algorithmuses eight templates to determine gradient and direc-tion of gradient [4]. Convolution table of a sample256×256 image at three different locations is shown infig. 1.
Fig. 1. Convolution table in a 256×256 image
Contents of the convolution table at (i, j) is shown infig. 2.
Icm[i-1, j-1] Icm[i-1, j] Icm[i-1, j+1]Icm[i , j-1] Icm[i , j] Icm[i , j+1]Icm[i+1, j-1] Icm[i+1, j] Icm[i+1, j+1]
Fig. 2. Information of convolution table at (i, j)
Consider a sample 3×3 convolution matrix is as speci-fied in equation (1). The size of the edge
 
gradient canbe expressed as given in equation (2) and (3).M (i, j) = max (1, max (|5s
k
-3t
k
|)) k=0, 1, … 7
(2)among:s
k
=a
k
+a
k+1
+a
k+2
 (3)t
k
=a
k+3
+a
k+4
+…+a
k+7
 The Kirsch algorithm detects an edge as well as di-rection of the edge. Accordingly, there are eight possi-ble directions
south, east, north, west, northeast,southeast, southwest and northwest. Out of the severaltemplates the biggest one is considered for the outputvalue and later the edges are extracted. Kirsch algo-rithm can set and reset the threshold values to obtainmost suitable edge of images. Kirsch algorithm workswell for images having clear distinction between theforeground and background. Since the retinal bloodvessels can be considered as required foreground in-formation from fundus images, Kirsch algorithm canbe efficiently applied.
4 E
XPERIMENTAL
R
ESULTS AND
E
VALUATION
 
The proposed algorithm implemented using MAT-AB version 7.10 and tested with the selected fundusimages of the retina from the gold standard databases[13]. The fundus images of the retina are categorizedinto three groups: healthy retinal images, retinal imag-es affected in diabetic and glaucomatous patients. Theproposed algorithm extracts the blood vessels from theretinal images. Fig 3, Fig 4 and Fig 5 shows the detailedsegmentation results obtained by applying proposedtechnique.To find the performance of proposed algorithm wehave compared resulting segmented fundus imageswith its equivalent gold-standard images. The gold-standard images are obtained by manual creation of avessel mask, where all vessel pixels are set to one andall non-vessel pixels are assigned to zero. The standardclassifications of a vessel are given in Table 1.
TABLE
 
IB
LOOD
V
ESSEL
C
LASSIFICATION
 
The proposed algorithm was evaluated by taking es-timated positive value (Ep), estimated negative vale(En) and accuracy (Ac) as the basic parameters.Where, Ep is the ratio of pixels as vessel that is cor-rectly classified. En is the ratio of pixels as background
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 5, ISSUE 1, JANUARY 2013, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputingWWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG56© 2013 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617
 
 
that is correctly classified and Ac provides the totalratio of well classified pixels.The performance evaluations of images are depend-ing upon the threshold (Th) values for each classifica-tion. We have numbered all the segmented imagesfrom Img_01 to Img_12 as shown in figure 3. Table II,III and IV are the performance results obtained aftercomparing with the original segmented images in goldstandard database. Segmentation accuracy is quite
good for healthy patients’ fundus images. But poor
r
esults are obtained for diabetic patients’ fundus ima
g-es. It is clearly observed that average accuracy of thesegmented results is around 0.79.
TABLE
 
2P
ERFORMANCE
R
ESULTS
F
OR
N
ORMAL
E
YES
 
Images Img_01 Img_02 Img_03 Img_04Ep
0.8526 0.8898 0.8392 0.8452
En
0.9982 0.9282 0.9023 0.9623
Ac
0.9785 0.9724 0.9537 0.9437
TABLE
 
3P
ERFORMANCE
R
ESULTS
F
OR
D
IABETIC
E
YES
 
Images Img_05 Img_06 Img_07 Img_08Ep
0.8724 0.8409 0.7180 0.7324
En
0.9435 0.8393 0.8254 0.9217
Ac
0.7439 0.7184 0.6992 0.7391
TABLE
 
4P
ERFORMANCE
R
ESULTS
F
OR
G
LAUCOMATOUS
E
YES
 
Images Img_09 Img_10 Img_11 Img_12Ep
0.7489 0.7035 0.8163 0.8624
En
0.8335 0.8323 0.9214 0.9257
Ac
0.9429 0.8147 0.8637 0.8373
5 C
ONCLUSION AND
F
UTURE
W
ORK
 
We have successfully implemented retinal bloodvessel extraction technique using Kirsch segmentationmethod. Segmentation of blood vessel is simple andfound satisfactory for fundus images of healthy pa-tients, and glaucomatous patients. But segmentationresults are less accurate for patients with diabetic reti-nopathy. On an average, the accuracy is around 0.79i.e. around 79% and still lot of scope for further im-provement in the algorithm is present. In the near fu-ture, we will try to work on retinal blood vessel extrac-tion of diabetic patients by enhancing the efficiency ofthe proposed technique.
R
EFERENCES
 
[1]
 
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JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 5, ISSUE 1, JANUARY 2013, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputingWWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG57© 2013 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

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