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P. 1
Lecture 1

Lecture 1

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Published by Tahir Abbas Sial
PAKISTAN STUDIES NOTES
PAKISTAN STUDIES NOTES

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Published by: Tahir Abbas Sial on Mar 25, 2013
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Lecture 1What is ideology?DefinitionAccording to oxford dictionary.
A set of beliefs, especially one held by a particular group, that influences the way peoplebehave.
Definition of political Ideology
A political ideology is a system of beliefs that explains and justifies a preferred political order,either existing or proposed and offers a strategy (institutions, processes, programs) for itsattainment.
How ideology emerges
All people are political thinkers whether they know it or not, people use political ideas andconcepts whenever they express their opinions or speak their. All political ideas are moulded bythe social and historical circumstances in which they develop and by the political ambitionsthey serve.Ideas and Ideologies influence political life in a number of ways. In the first place, they provideperspective through which the world is understood and explained. People do not see the worldas it is, but only as they expect it to be, in other words, they see it through a veil of ingrainedbeliefs, opinions and assumptions. Political ideas and ideologies thus set goals that inspirepolitical activity.Finally, political ideas and ideologies can act as a form of social cement, providing social groupsand indeed whole societies, with a set of unifying beliefs and values. Political ideologies havecommonly been associated with particular social classes, conservatism with landed aristocracy,socialism with the working class and so forth. However, ideas and ideologies can also succeed inbinding together divergent groups and classes within a society.For instance, there is unifying bedrock of liberal-democratic values in most western states,while countries Islam has established a common set of moral principles and beliefs. In providingsociety with a unified political culture, political ideas help to promote order and social stability.Ideologies often reflect the way of thinking of a nation or a social group who has been rejecteda social position which otherwise would have been its due place in the society. It growsamongst the dissatisfied group of the society as a challenge to the prevailing social set up.
 
An ideology emerges when people feel strongly that they are being mistreated under anexisting order, when their status is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in the societyand when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them.Ideology is motivating force for a nation which is striving hard to bring stability andhomogeneity nationhood.An ideology offers an interpretation of the past and explanation of the present and a vision of the future.
Basis for Pakistan’s Ideology
 
Pakistan’s ideology is based on the ideals of the Islamic system. It was a reaction to the Hindu
-British exploitation of the muslims of the sub-continent. It was a revolt against the prevailingsystem of India where the Hindu nationalism was being imposed on the muslims and theirculture in order to save it from total elimination.
The creation of Pakistan was unique in the sense that it was based on the ideology whichsought its from the religion of islam. Pakistan is the only Muslim country to be created on thebasis of relgion.
1.
 
Historical2.
 
Political3.
 
Religious4.
 
Cultural5.
 
Psychological1.
 
Historical:
What is Pakistan’s Ideology.
 As far as the meaning and definition of Pakistan ideology is concerned, it basically means that Pakistanshould be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to their faith andcreed based on the Islamic principles. They should have all the resources at the disposal to enhanceIslamic culture and civilization because this was the sole purpose of demanding a separate homeland forthe Muslims.Two Nation theory.
 
Pakistan ideology was erected on the two-nation theory which meant that hindus and Muslims weretwo separate and distinct nations whose understanding of life was glaringly different from each other.The entire freedom movement resolved around Two-Nation theory which became the basis of demandfor Pakistan. It meant that the Muslims were a separate nation with their distinct culture, civilization,literature, history, religion and social values. Islam, the religion of the Muslims, was based on theconcept of Tauheed and therefore, could not be assimilated in any other system or religion.
Meaning of Two Nation TheoryThe Two Nation Theory in its simplest way means the cultural, political, religious, economic andsocial dissimilarities between the two major communities. Hindus and Muslims of the SubContinent. These difference of outlook ,in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to twodistinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into twoindependent states.THE BASIS OF THE CREATION OF PAKISTANThe Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held thatHindus and Muslims are two separate Nations. They in spite of living together for centuriescould not forget their individual cultures and civilization. Al-Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001A.D in his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as:"The Hindus society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries. The two societies,Hindus and Muslims, like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged, eachfollowing its separate course."There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two Nations. Let usexamine each of them separately.1. Religious DifferencesThe Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions. Islam preaches Tawheed (oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, The HolyProphet (P.B.U.H) the Holy Book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life.Hinduism on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows acaste system and is divided into four classes and have a very narrow approach towards life.2. Hindu NationalismA number of Hindu nationalist movements, which emerged from time to time in the Indianhistory, added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which already existed between the two communities.The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in theIndian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Their writings andideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the

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