Lecture 1What is ideology?DefinitionAccording to oxford dictionary.
A set of beliefs, especially one held by a particular group, that influences the way peoplebehave.
Definition of political Ideology
A political ideology is a system of beliefs that explains and justifies a preferred political order,either existing or proposed and offers a strategy (institutions, processes, programs) for itsattainment.
How ideology emerges
All people are political thinkers whether they know it or not, people use political ideas andconcepts whenever they express their opinions or speak their. All political ideas are moulded bythe social and historical circumstances in which they develop and by the political ambitionsthey serve.Ideas and Ideologies influence political life in a number of ways. In the first place, they provideperspective through which the world is understood and explained. People do not see the worldas it is, but only as they expect it to be, in other words, they see it through a veil of ingrainedbeliefs, opinions and assumptions. Political ideas and ideologies thus set goals that inspirepolitical activity.Finally, political ideas and ideologies can act as a form of social cement, providing social groupsand indeed whole societies, with a set of unifying beliefs and values. Political ideologies havecommonly been associated with particular social classes, conservatism with landed aristocracy,socialism with the working class and so forth. However, ideas and ideologies can also succeed inbinding together divergent groups and classes within a society.For instance, there is unifying bedrock of liberal-democratic values in most western states,while countries Islam has established a common set of moral principles and beliefs. In providingsociety with a unified political culture, political ideas help to promote order and social stability.Ideologies often reflect the way of thinking of a nation or a social group who has been rejecteda social position which otherwise would have been its due place in the society. It growsamongst the dissatisfied group of the society as a challenge to the prevailing social set up.